Introduction to the map

Please find a list of our global and regional case studies below. To access the country-specific case studies please click on the round beige (scientific case studies), blue (business case studies) or beige-blue (scientific and business case studies) icons directing you to a list of case studies of the chosen country.

Enjoy your time navigating through our diverse case studies on the economics of land degradation!   

ELD Case Studies


No case studies exist in the selected region. Please also check the Global and regional case studies.

Case studies in Argentina

Case Study

Case study details

A small project a big step – Paso Grande

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: Marisa Young, María Paula Lopardo, Waltraud Ederer, Luis Manuel Selva García, Carlos Würschmidt
Location(s): Argentina (Paso Grande)

Abstract:

Paso Grande is a small rural town located in Argentina, it´s framed by mountains and crossed by Conlara river. The climate is dry, only in summer there are significant rains that completely change the landscape. Most of the people live off livestock, mainly goats. The area is highly affected by the fires, especially during spring, and the main enemies of livestock are wild animals. While it has a fairly preserved natural beauty, people have very low income and do not have sufficient and in quality basic services, with occasional overexploitation of resources (overgrazing, deforestation, etc.), nor information and infrastructure for some activities.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Young, M., Lopardo, M. P., Ederer, W., Selva García, L. M., Würschmidt, C. 2014. A small project a big step – Paso Grande. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Adding Value to Livestock Diversity: Marketing to Promote Local Breeds and Improve Livelihoods

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP and FAO
Location(s): Latin America, Africa, Asia: India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Argentina, South Africa, Mauritania, Somalia

Abstract:

Throughout the world and over centuries, small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists have developed animal breeds that are well suited to their local conditions. These breeds are hardy and disease-resistant; they can survive on little water and scant vegetation. They can continue producing meat and milk in areas where modern, imported breeds succumb without expensive housing, feed and veterinary care. They enable people to earn a living in otherwise inhospitable areas, and embody valuable genetics for future breeding efforts. Nevertheless, these breeds are in danger of disappearing, pushed out by modern production techniques and out-competed by exotic breeds. Finding niche markets for their products is one possible way of ensuring the survival of these breeds, and enabling the people who keep them to earn more from their existing lifestyle.

Full reference of the paper/report:

LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP, & FAO, 2010. Adding value to livestock diversity - Marketing to promote local breeds and improve livelihoods. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 168. FAO, Rome. www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1283e/i1283e.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Cost-effectiveness of Dryland Forest Restoration Evaluated by Spatial Analysis of Ecosystem Services

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: J. C. Birch, A. C. Newtona, C. Alvarez Aquino, E. Cantarello, C. Echeverría, T. Kitzberger, I. Schiappacasse and N. T. Garavito
Location(s): Argentina, Mexico, and Chile (Nahuel Huapi, Río Negro/Neuquén (Argentina); El Tablon, Chiapas (Mexico); Central Veracruz (Mexico); and Quilpue Valparaíso region (Chile) )

Abstract:

Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Birch, J.C., Newton, A.C., Aquino, C.A., Cantarello, E., Echeverría, C., Kitzberger, T., Schiappacassee, I., & Tejedor Garavitoa, N., 2010. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.107(50): 21925-21930. www.pnas.org/content/107/50/21925.abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Rebuilding resilience: climate-change adaptation through SLM in the Southwest of the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

Study from: ?, published in ?
Authors: Daniel Eduardo Iurman; Vicente Larreguy
Location(s): Argentinia

Abstract:

An economic case-study was conducted by the National Institute for Agricultural Tecnology (INTA), in order to carry out a cost-benefit-analysis comparing tradition-al mixed-type agriculture and livestock production to sustainable cattle-ranching based on natural rangeland restoration through the management of degraded are-as with closures and implanted pasture. The alternative scenario was compared to the Business-As-Usual-Scenario in terms of productivity, obtained gross-benefits and stocking rates on a representative (500 hectare – family-run) farm.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Iurman, D.E., & Larreguy, V. (2015). Rebuilding resilience: climate-change adaptation through SLM in the Southwest of the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. National Institute for Agricultural Technology (INTA).


Case studies in South Africa

Case Study

Case study details

Adaptation with a Human Face

Study from: 1999-2012, published in 2012
Authors: N. Oettle
Location(s): South Africa (arid west)

Abstract:

The case-study explores the dynamics of an on-going process of adaptation to climatic variability and change undertaken by a community of small-scale farmers in the arid west of South Africa. The perspectives of individual producers and non-governmental organisations form the basis of an analysis of the dynamics of this process, and explore the role of local institutions in enhancing the sustainability of farming systems. The question of how the adaptive capacity of producers has changed, and what factors have contributed to (and detracted from) the development of such capacity are explored, including aspects of provision of information, funds and other resources by government, donors, trading partners and NGOs, and specifically the intervention methodologies that have been used. The study identifies key aspects that should receive attention in the design and implementation of adaptation interventions with vulnerable communities.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Oettle, N., 2012. Adaptation with a human face: Adaptation case study. Environmental Monitoring Group, Cape Town. www.emg.org.za/images/downloads/climate_ch/Rural-Adaptation_with_a_Human_face_small.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Adding Value to Livestock Diversity: Marketing to Promote Local Breeds and Improve Livelihoods

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP and FAO
Location(s): Latin America, Africa, Asia: India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Argentina, South Africa, Mauritania, Somalia

Abstract:

Throughout the world and over centuries, small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists have developed animal breeds that are well suited to their local conditions. These breeds are hardy and disease-resistant; they can survive on little water and scant vegetation. They can continue producing meat and milk in areas where modern, imported breeds succumb without expensive housing, feed and veterinary care. They enable people to earn a living in otherwise inhospitable areas, and embody valuable genetics for future breeding efforts. Nevertheless, these breeds are in danger of disappearing, pushed out by modern production techniques and out-competed by exotic breeds. Finding niche markets for their products is one possible way of ensuring the survival of these breeds, and enabling the people who keep them to earn more from their existing lifestyle.

Full reference of the paper/report:

LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP, & FAO, 2010. Adding value to livestock diversity - Marketing to promote local breeds and improve livelihoods. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 168. FAO, Rome. www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1283e/i1283e.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Rhino Conservation in a Land-Use Context within the Region

Study from: 2005, published in 2005
Authors: A. Spenceley and J. Barnes
Location(s): South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Botswana and Zambia

Abstract:

In December 2004 IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa commissioned an economic analysis of rhino conservation in southern Africa. The aim of the analysis was to explore the rationale for regarding rhino as "flagship species" in terms of: The extent to which they might “add value" to existing wildlife operations in state and private areas; The extent to which their protection and monitoring needs might confer blanket protection for other wildlife components that might be vulnerable to human pressures (notably poaching, and including the converse possibility, that rhino may attract poachers into an area where other wildlife is then poached); The extent to they might contribute to community-based tourism and thereby to rural livelihoods, including comment on the opportunities for "direct incentives" payments to landholders or communities who ensure breeding opportunities for this species; The extent to which, in view of the above, they might be catalytic to land-use changes that entail a move towards wildlife production from alternative land-uses such as livestock production. Economic analyses were to concentrate on market values of relevant goods and services rather than non-use values, and to outline the issues and implications of consumptive uses of rhino within the SADC region. The analysis was essentially a pilot study that was designed to achieve an initial general insight into economic issues surrounding black and white rhino in southern Africa. Therefore rather than providing a comparative analysis between sites, or longitudinal evaluations, the study is largely descriptive for one or two case study sites within each part of the analysis. Where the availability of data has allowed, economic scenario analyses have been performed to generate realistic predictions for revenue generation in the future for enterprises and reserves that support rhino populations. In addition to presenting economic data regarding rhino around southern Africa, the discussion attempts to outline the issues and implications of consumptive and non-consumptive use of rhinos within the SADC region. The study considered whether rhino added value to wildlife operations in state and private areas by evaluating revenue generating activities and costs associated with rhino in South Africa and Namibia. The evaluation concluded that both black and white rhino provide a net benefit to both state and private protected areas through both consumptive and non-consumptive use. Considering the development of conservancies in Namibia and Zimbabwe, rhino have played a pivotal role in motivating land-use change. In Namibia the community-based natural resource management program embraces a major portion of all communal lands in the country, so that large areas are now allocated to wildlife uses, alongside livestock. In Zimbabwe financial benefits associated with the presence of rhino on private land catalysed the change in use from livestock to wildlife. A series of factors combined to bring about this change, which included an enabling political environment and legislation, support by WWF and appropriate financial assistance, the unsuitability of the habitat for livestock production and co-operation between neighbouring landowners. Both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of rhino have the potential to generate significant amounts of economic income and to contribute to the livelihoods of rural people. As land uses, they tend to be complementary and not mutually exclusive. This and other studies have shown that combinations of both non-consumptive and consumptive uses will generate maximum benefits. To provide the incentives needed for massive investment in rhino conservation, all possible uses should be explored for rhino.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Spencely, A., & Barnes, J., 2005. Economic analysis of rhino conservation in a land-use context region. SADC Regional Programme for Rhino Conservation. Harare, Zimbabwe. anna.spenceley.co.uk/files/Spenceley%20&%20Barnes.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Woodlands or Wastelands: Examining the Value of South Africa's Woodlands

Study from: 2001, published in 2001
Authors: C.M. Shackleton, C.B. Willis and R.J. Scholes
Location(s): South Africa

Abstract:

The savanna woodlands are the largest biome in the country, constituting one-third of South Africa. They are also home to one-quarter of the population, with 70 % of the former homelands being in the savanna biome. Consequently, they have the potential to make a marked contribution to the national economy, both in the formal and informal sector. They are also valuable on a national scale in terms of the ecosystem services they provide, such as carbon storage, biodiversity and water yield. Until recently the real and potential values attached to South Africa's savannas have not been recognised in policy fora and government institutions. Recent policy changes, especially the National Forestry Action Programme and the National Forest Act, have attempted to remedy this situation. These policies have not filtered down to land owners and managers, nor have they resulted in a redirection of government resources. Thus, large areas remain subject to unsustainable use. It is necessary that the true value of woodlands be determined and acknowledged as a stimulus to government agencies, the private sector and local users to use this valuable resource sustainably.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Shackleton, C.M. Willis, C.B., & Scholes, R.J., 2001. Woodlands or wastelands: Examining the value of South Africa’s woodlands. Southern African Forestry Journal.192: 65-72. www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/20702620.2001.10434135


Case studies in Mexico

Case Study

Case study details

Adding Biodiversity Conservation Values to a Value Chains and Rural Finance Initiative: The AFIRMA Project Experience in Mexico

Study from: 2004-2009, published in 2009
Authors: N. Bournes
Location(s): Mexico

Abstract:

The Access to Rural Finance for the Microenterprise (AFIRMA) Project, a USAID/Mexico-funded project implemented by DAI was designed to help build a more inclusive, sustainable financial sector in Mexico, increasing access to a range of services. The project’s mission was: "To contribute to the development of a dynamic, effective microfinance sector in Mexico that provides sustainable financial services to under-served urban and rural market segments, helping them manage risk and contribute to local economic growth." During year four of this five year project, USAID asked the project to prioritize initiatives to address threats to Mexico’s biodiversity. This technical note outlines how DAI went about it, and some of the lessons learned in the process.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Bournes, N., 2009. Adding biodiversity conservation values to a value chains and rural finance initiative: The AFIRMA project experience in Mexico. DAI. pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnadw230.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case Studies

Study from: 2003 (based on data from 1986-1999), published in 2003
Authors: L. Berry, J. Olson and D. Campbell
Location(s): China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile, Indonesia

Abstract:

This study, commissioned by the Global Mechanism with support from the World Bank examined available national data on the extent, costs and current remedial actions concerning land degradation and sustainable land management in seven pilot countries. This was a desk study, but included countries where the authors had detailed long term knowledge. The results of the work are presented in seven case studies of China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile and Indonesia; and this overview paper, which presents a synthesis of the lessons learned from the cases and from a review of the current academic and report literature.

Both encouraging and cautionary lessons can be drawn from this work. There are situations in the seven pilot countries and others cited in the literature, where sustainable and economic levels of productivity have been achieved under conditions of ongoing soil and water conservation. There are even stories of good application of low cost technologies. There are however other situations where poverty and land degradation appear to feed off each other in a downward spiral with the disruption of both farming and socio-economic systems.

In most cases the best available national assessments suggested that agricultural productivity is reduced by land degradation at a minimum rate of 3 to 7% and that investment in remedial action was an order of magnitude smaller than estimated costs. Governments were aware of the problem but responses especially in the past were typically top-down and directed to the on-site physical problems of soil and nutrient loss. On the other hand it is clear that policy issues can be critical factors in causing or reducing land degradation.

One of the concerns raised by the study was the incompleteness and inconsistency in the basic data on costs of land degradation and there is a case for a more comprehensive approach to this topic. However, information is sufficient to open up initial dialogues with respective governments on new approaches and increased investment in sustainable land management, targeting more integrated and holistic approaches and involving local and regional stakeholders in the activity at all stages.

One key recommendation suggests that the most efficient approach to mitigation would include a careful analysis of the policy framework most likely to facilitate mitigation through direct and indirect measures, capacity building and a focus on alternative livelihoods that would improve rural conditions and address poverty – degradation linkages.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Berry, L., Olson, J., & Campbell, D., 2003. Assessing the extent, cost and impact of land degradation at the national level: findings and lessons learned from seven pilot case studies. Global Mechanism. global-mechanism.org/edocman/download.php

Case Study

Case study details

Cost-effectiveness of Dryland Forest Restoration Evaluated by Spatial Analysis of Ecosystem Services

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: J. C. Birch, A. C. Newtona, C. Alvarez Aquino, E. Cantarello, C. Echeverría, T. Kitzberger, I. Schiappacasse and N. T. Garavito
Location(s): Argentina, Mexico, and Chile (Nahuel Huapi, Río Negro/Neuquén (Argentina); El Tablon, Chiapas (Mexico); Central Veracruz (Mexico); and Quilpue Valparaíso region (Chile) )

Abstract:

Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Birch, J.C., Newton, A.C., Aquino, C.A., Cantarello, E., Echeverría, C., Kitzberger, T., Schiappacassee, I., & Tejedor Garavitoa, N., 2010. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.107(50): 21925-21930. www.pnas.org/content/107/50/21925.abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Deprived Land-Use Intensification in Shifting Cultivation: The Population Pressure Hypothesis Revisited

Study from: Field surveys conducted between 1998 and 2000, published in 2006
Authors: U. Pascual and E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Mexico (Yucatan)

Abstract:

This article provides a theoretical framework, based on optimal control theory, to analyze farm households' land-use intensification decisions in forest-based shifting cultivation (slash-and-burn) agroecosystems. The main results from the analysis generally coincide with the “Population Pressure Hypothesis” as an important driver of soil degradation due to the so-called “fallow crisis” or “deprived land-use intensification” in shifting cultivation. However, the model also shows, from a supply perspective, that such a vicious circle of lower yields and greater forest land clearing may be avoided when the production elasticity of on-farm labor outweighs the elasticity of substitution between farm labor and soil fertility. Furthermore, using data from shifting cultivating households from Yucatán, Mexico, we calibrate the effect of changes in population density. The numerical analysis suggests that by contrast to better-off households, when population density increases, poorer shifting cultivating households' optimal labor allocation strategy is to further extensify land use by clearing more forest in the village common property land, or ejido land.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Pascual, U., & Barbier, E.B., 2006. Deprived land-use intensification in shifting cultivation: The population pressure hypothesis revisited. Agricultural Economics34: 155-165. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1574-0864.2006.00115.x/pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Deforestation in Mexico

Study from: 1994-1995, based on data from 1970-1985 from Mexico, published in 1996
Authors: E. B. Barbier and J. C. Burgess
Location(s): Mexico

Abstract:

This paper uses panel analyses to estimate relationships for agricultural planted area and beef cattle numbers at the state level in Mexico during the periods 1970-85, in order to determine the main factors affecting forest land conversion. Of the key policy variables, maize and fertilizer prices appear to be the main influences on the expansion of planted area, whereas beef prices and credit disbursement influence cattle numbers. Population growth also affects both livestock and agricultural activities, and income per capita is positively correlated with cattle expansion. These estimated relationships are used to examine the effects both of agricultural and livestock sectoral policy changes and of trade liberalization in Mexico resulting from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). To avoid any unintended impacts of NAFTA on Deforestation, it may be necessary for Mexico to make complementary investments in Land improvements, especially for existing cultivation on rain fed land.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., & Burgess, J.C., 1996. Economic analysis of deforestation in Mexico. Environment and Development Economics. 1(2): 203-240.

 

Case Study

Case study details

Institutional Constraints and Deforestation: An Application to Mexico

Study from: 2000-2001, based on data from 1970-1985 from Mexico, published in 2002
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Mexico

Abstract:

Following North (1990), this article hypothesizes that effective rural institutions may impose additional costs on tropical deforestation through agricultural conversion. This allows a formal agricultural household analysis of institutional constraints on deforestation and therefore a method of empirically testing whether there is any significant difference in the actual level of forest land conversion under institutional constraints [collectively owned and managed land or ejido] compared to the level of conversion under pure open access. A dynamic panel analysis for agricultural planted area in Mexico at state level and over the 1960–85 period confirms that institutional constraints on land clearing affected deforestation during the pre-NAFTA era [ie institutional constraints limited agricultural expansion compared to pure open access].

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2002. Institutional constraints and deforestation: An application to Mexico. Economic Inquiry. 40(3): 508-551. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/ei/40.3.508/abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Links between Economic Liberalization and Rural Resource Degradation in the Developing Regions

Study from: 1999-2000, based on data from 1965-1995 in Ghana and 1970-1985 in Mexico, published in 2000
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Ghana, Mexico

Abstract:

This paper examines evidence of the effects of economic liberalization and globalization on rural resource degradation in developing countries. The principal resource effects of concern are processes of land use change leading to forestland conversion, degradation and deforestation. The main trends in globalization of interest are trade liberalization and economy-wide reforms in developing countries that have ‘opened up’ the agroindustrial sectors, thus increasing their export-orientation. Such reforms have clearly spurred agroindustrialization, rural development and economic growth, but there is also concern that there may be direct and indirect impacts on rural resource degradation. The direct impacts may occur as increased agricultural activity leads to conversion of forests and increased land degradation from ‘unsustainable’ production methods. However, there may also be indirect effects if agroindustrial development displaces landless, near-landless and rural poor generally, who then migrate to marginal agricultural lands and forest frontier regions. This paper explores these direct and indirect effects of globalization and agroindustrialization on rural resource degradation both generally, plus through examining case study evidence. The paper focuses in particular on the examples of structural adjustment, trade liberalization and agricultural development in Ghana, and maize sector liberalization in Mexico under North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2000. Links between economic liberalization and rural resource degradation in the developing regions. Agricultural Economics. 23: 299-310. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169515000000918

Case Study

Case study details

Net Present Value's Estimation For The Project: Construction And Operation Of A Dam In The Ejido La Victoria, In The Region Of El Salto, In The State Of Durango, Mexico

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: José Ciro Hernández-Díaz; Karla E. Segura-Millan; Yolanda Ontiveros; Emanuel Estrada-Mena
Location(s): Mexico (El Salto Region)

Abstract:

In this analysis the costs and benefits received by the owners of the land in ejido La Victoria, where a dam is to be built, were compared. Scenarios were analyzed considering the inclusion of subsidies and government transfers to the ejidatarios if necessary, to encourage their cooperation, by allowing to build the dam on their land and accepting to perform actions for the maintenance and conservation of protective vegetation in the microbasin, for the 60 years comprising project.

Results led to conclude that THE SCENARIO THREE is the most advisable from the public point of view, since with this proposal the benefits are spread to a wider number of stakeholders (water for inhabitants of the city El Salto, and water and monetary benefits for the ejidatarios), even though the NPV OF THE INCREMENTAL BENEFIT with the SCENARIO THREE (from a private point of view) is negative ($ -12’226,335.38)

Such SCENARIO THREE implies the following:

SCENARIO THREE: BENEFITS for the Ejidatarios INCLUDE:

1. There are 4,359 households in El Salto, each paying $27.54/month to La Victoria per water services (from year 2 to 60),

2. Payment for hydrological services (subsided by the government) $300/ha/yr in 706 ha for the first 6 years.

 

SCENARIO THREE: TOTAL COSTS INCLUDE: In this case the costs are assumed by the Ejidatarios and by the government.

• Maintenance of the forest $300/ha/yr in 706 ha, paid by the ejidatarios (years 1 to 60)

• Dam’s construction $20,000,000 (assumed), paid by the government (year 1)

• Annual dam's maintenance $330,285/yr, paid by the government (years 2 to 60)

 

Please notice that in this proposal a great deal of the costs are paid by the government.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Hernández-Díaz, J. C., Segura-Millan, K. E., Ontiveros, Y., Estrada-Mena, E. 2014. Net Present Value's Estimation For The Project: Construction And Operation Of A Dam In The Ejido La Victoria, In The Region Of El Salto, In The State Of Durango, Mexico. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445


Case studies in India

Case Study

Case study details

Adding Value to Livestock Diversity: Marketing to Promote Local Breeds and Improve Livelihoods

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP and FAO
Location(s): Latin America, Africa, Asia: India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Argentina, South Africa, Mauritania, Somalia

Abstract:

Throughout the world and over centuries, small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists have developed animal breeds that are well suited to their local conditions. These breeds are hardy and disease-resistant; they can survive on little water and scant vegetation. They can continue producing meat and milk in areas where modern, imported breeds succumb without expensive housing, feed and veterinary care. They enable people to earn a living in otherwise inhospitable areas, and embody valuable genetics for future breeding efforts. Nevertheless, these breeds are in danger of disappearing, pushed out by modern production techniques and out-competed by exotic breeds. Finding niche markets for their products is one possible way of ensuring the survival of these breeds, and enabling the people who keep them to earn more from their existing lifestyle.

Full reference of the paper/report:

LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP, & FAO, 2010. Adding value to livestock diversity - Marketing to promote local breeds and improve livelihoods. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 168. FAO, Rome. www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1283e/i1283e.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Notorious Dry lands of Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: V.S.Balasubramanian, Dhananjaya, Anupriya Pande, Uma Gurumurthy, & Dr.Inkarsal
Location(s): India

Abstract:

Full reference of the paper/report:

Balasubramanian, V.S., Dhananjaya, B. N., Pande, A., Gurumurthy, U., Inkarsal. 2014 Cost-Benefit Analysis of Notorious Dry lands of Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Project Unnati: Coca-Cola India and Jain Irrigation Systems

Study from: 2011 - ongoing, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): India (Andhra Pradesh)

Abstract:

Despite India contributing 55% of the world's mango production, the productivity

is one of the lowest in the world. Farming is important for several communities, but improper land management and soil erosion cause problems. Project Unnati is engaging mango farmers in the state of Andhra Pradesh to adopt ultra-high-density plantation practices leveraging drip irrigation which improve the yields with 100% in a sustainable manner.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Coca-Cola India, 2010. What ’s New. www.cocacolaindia.com/presscenter/whats_new-Unnati.html.

 

Coca-Cola, 2013. 2011/2012 Sustainability report. www.coca-colacompany.com/sustainabilityreport/world/sustainable-agriculture.html.

 

The Hindu Business Line, 2013. Coca-Cola, Jain Irrigation

project looks to scale up AP mango yields. www.thehindubusinessline.com/industry-and-economy/agribiz/cocacola-jain-irrigation-project-looks-to-scale-upap-mango-yields/article3679126.ece.

 

The Hindu, 2011. Coca-Cola ties up with Jain Irrigation. www.thehindu.com/business/cocacola-ties-up-withjain-irrigation/article2453447.ece.

 

Bloomberg, 2011. Jain Irrigation to Announce Venture With

Coca-Cola India. http: //www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-09-12/jain-irrigation-to-announce-venturewith-coca-cola-india-1-.html.

 

 

Case Study

Case study details

Sundarban Eco-restoration Programme - Stakeholder Engagement Plan

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Md. Salimul Alam Shahin, Deepak Sharma, Palash Sharma
Location(s): Bangladesh, India

Abstract:

The Sundarbans is serving a lots of ecological functions which include protecting cyclone and tidal bores, oxygen production, natural nursery for shrimp and crabs, waste recycling, carbon cycling, supply of food and building materials, trapping of sediments and land formation. Ignorance and lack of ownership, no one to take care of, lack of investment of authorized and lack of investment are some of the reasons behind degradation of such land. It is a matter of regret that, the land in Sundarbans is degrading day by day because of human interruption, natural calamity, population growth, agricultural and household extension, faulty policies of the government. Natural resources including flora and fauna are in stake due to human intervention. It is high time to think about it and to admit the proper value of Sundarbans reserve forest.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Shahin, S. A., Sharma, D., Sharma, P. 2015. Sundarban Eco-restoration Programme - Stakeholder Engagement Plan. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Sustaining the Ecosystem for Water, Wildlife and Community in India: Holcim / Ambuja Cements

Study from: ongoing, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): India (Gujarat)

Abstract:

In Gujarat, India there have been water scarcity and salinity issues for several

years, affecting both local people and industries. Ambuja Cements now

undertakes rehabilitation activities at all its sites, with the objective of

mitigating the impacts from the withdrawal of limestone and water from the

area, both of which are required for cement manufacturing.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Holcim, 2013. Ambuja Cements, India: Integrated water harvesting. www.holcim.com/sustainabledevelopment/case-studies/case-studies-by-topic/casestudies/ambuja-cements-india-integrated-waterharvesting.html.

 

Holcim, 2013. Case study on water. www.holcim.com/sustainable-development/environment/water/casestudy-on-water.html.


Case studies in Kyrgyzstan

Case Study

Case study details

Adding Value to Livestock Diversity: Marketing to Promote Local Breeds and Improve Livelihoods

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP and FAO
Location(s): Latin America, Africa, Asia: India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Argentina, South Africa, Mauritania, Somalia

Abstract:

Throughout the world and over centuries, small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists have developed animal breeds that are well suited to their local conditions. These breeds are hardy and disease-resistant; they can survive on little water and scant vegetation. They can continue producing meat and milk in areas where modern, imported breeds succumb without expensive housing, feed and veterinary care. They enable people to earn a living in otherwise inhospitable areas, and embody valuable genetics for future breeding efforts. Nevertheless, these breeds are in danger of disappearing, pushed out by modern production techniques and out-competed by exotic breeds. Finding niche markets for their products is one possible way of ensuring the survival of these breeds, and enabling the people who keep them to earn more from their existing lifestyle.

Full reference of the paper/report:

LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP, & FAO, 2010. Adding value to livestock diversity - Marketing to promote local breeds and improve livelihoods. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 168. FAO, Rome. www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1283e/i1283e.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Why don’t Kyrgyz Herders engage in sustainable land management?

Study from: 2013, published in ?
Authors: Rebecka Ridder
Location(s): Kyrgyzstan

Abstract:

Pastures provide an important source of livelihoods in Southern Kyrgyzstan. However, these pastures are severely degraded. Stocking numbers exceed the carrying capacity of pastures and total biomass has decreased since the 1980s. Net Present Values (NPV) of different pasture management schemes are calculated. The results are linked to institutional changes after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this way, an explanation is offered as to why herders may not engage in sustainable land management.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Ridder, R. (2015). Why don’t Kyrgyz Herders engage in sustainable land management? Master Thesis. Berlin: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin


Case studies in Mongolia

Case Study

Case study details

Adding Value to Livestock Diversity: Marketing to Promote Local Breeds and Improve Livelihoods

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP and FAO
Location(s): Latin America, Africa, Asia: India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Argentina, South Africa, Mauritania, Somalia

Abstract:

Throughout the world and over centuries, small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists have developed animal breeds that are well suited to their local conditions. These breeds are hardy and disease-resistant; they can survive on little water and scant vegetation. They can continue producing meat and milk in areas where modern, imported breeds succumb without expensive housing, feed and veterinary care. They enable people to earn a living in otherwise inhospitable areas, and embody valuable genetics for future breeding efforts. Nevertheless, these breeds are in danger of disappearing, pushed out by modern production techniques and out-competed by exotic breeds. Finding niche markets for their products is one possible way of ensuring the survival of these breeds, and enabling the people who keep them to earn more from their existing lifestyle.

Full reference of the paper/report:

LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP, & FAO, 2010. Adding value to livestock diversity - Marketing to promote local breeds and improve livelihoods. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 168. FAO, Rome. www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1283e/i1283e.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Measuring the Impacts of Community-based Grasslands Management in Mongolia's Gobi

Study from: 1995-2006 (based on data from 1982-2009), published in 2012
Authors: C. Leisher, S. Hess, T.M, Boucher, P. van Beukering and M. Sanjayan
Location(s): Mongolia (Gobi desert)

Abstract:

We assessed a donor-funded grassland management project designed to create both conservation and livelihood benefits in the rangelands of Mongolia's Gobi desert. The project ran from 1995 to 2006, and we used remote sensing Normalized Differential Vegetation Index data from 1982 to 2009 to compare project grazing sites to matched control sites before and after the project's implementation. We found that the productivity of project grazing sites was on average within 1% of control sites for the 20 years before the project but generated 11% more biomass on average than the control areas from 2000 to 2009. To better understand the benefits of the improved grasslands to local people, we conducted 280 household interviews, 8 focus group discussions, and 31 key informant interviews across 6 districts. We found a 12% greater median annual income as well as a range of other socioeconomic benefits for project households compared to control households in the same areas. Overall, the project generated measurable benefits to both nature and people. The key factors underlying project achievements that may be replicable by other conservation projects include the community-driven approach of the project, knowledge exchanges within and between communities inside and outside the country, a project-supported local community organizer in each district, and strong community leadership.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Leisher, C., Hess, S., Boucher, T.M., van Beukering, P., & Sanjayan, M., 2012. Measuring the impacts of community-based grasslands management in Mongolia's Gobi. PLoS ONE. 7(2): 1-8. www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0030991

Case Study

Case study details

The Economic Value of the Upper Tuul Ecosystem (Mongolia)

Study from: 2008-2009, published in 2009
Authors: L. Emerton, N. Erdenesaikhan, B. De Veen, D. Tsogoo, L. Janchivdorj, P. Suvd, B. Enkhtsetseg, G. Gandolgor, C. Dorisuren, D. Sainbayar and A. Enkhbaatar
Location(s): Upper Tuul Region, Mongolia

Abstract:

The calculation of ecosystem values has been influential in decisions on the management of natural resources around the world. It is a well-established approach which is used to inform a wide variety of development initiatives. It has not however, until now, been undertaken in Mongolia. The genesis of this innovative piece of work was the high-level environment meeting between the Government of Mongolia and its Donor Partners held in October 2006. This meeting discussed the great values of Mongolia’s ecosystems and natural resources, and the Deputy Minister of Finance told the meeting that no valuation was available to help assess the appropriate investment needs for resource protection and management in Mongolia. The NEMO2* team took the above statement as a challenge. Despite limited availability and quality of data, an attempt was launched to do such an economic valuation. The resulting report now shows that this was the right decision. The work focused on the Upper Tuul valley, arguably the most important ecosystem in the country because it serves as the source of all of Ulaanbaatar’s water and as a major domestic and international tourism center. With a combination of household interviews, local government data, primary data collection, computer modeling, and good GIS analysis, a conservative yet considerable estimate of the value of the Upper Tuul ecosystem has resulted. Since the study area is immediately adjacent to Ulaanbaatar and its highest-value resource—water—is something which more than 1 million people use every day, the results and recommendations need the close attention of the national and municipal governments, NGOs, academics and the citizens of Ulaanbaatar. In an effort to translate the report’s findings into action, we intend to support the full dissemination not only of the Mongolian and English versions of the report, but also of the primary data which will be made available through the websites of the World Bank Mongolia office (www.worldbank.org.mn) and NEMO (www. worldbank.org/nemo). We hope this report will generate a renewed focus and enthusiasm for the active management and protection of the Upper Tuul Valley.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Emerton, L., Erdenesaikhan, N., De Veen, B., Tsogoo, D., Janchivdorj, L., Suvd, P., Enkhtsetseg, B., Gandolgor, G., Dorisuren, C., Sainbayar, D., & Enkhbaatar., A., 2009. The economic value of the Upper Tuul Ecosystem (Mongolia). Mongolia Discussion Papers, East Asia and Pacific Sustainable Development Depeartment. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Washington, D.C. siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPREGTOPENVIRONMENT/Resources/TuulMongolia111809.pdf


Case studies in Mauritania

Case Study

Case study details

Adding Value to Livestock Diversity: Marketing to Promote Local Breeds and Improve Livelihoods

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP and FAO
Location(s): Latin America, Africa, Asia: India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Argentina, South Africa, Mauritania, Somalia

Abstract:

Throughout the world and over centuries, small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists have developed animal breeds that are well suited to their local conditions. These breeds are hardy and disease-resistant; they can survive on little water and scant vegetation. They can continue producing meat and milk in areas where modern, imported breeds succumb without expensive housing, feed and veterinary care. They enable people to earn a living in otherwise inhospitable areas, and embody valuable genetics for future breeding efforts. Nevertheless, these breeds are in danger of disappearing, pushed out by modern production techniques and out-competed by exotic breeds. Finding niche markets for their products is one possible way of ensuring the survival of these breeds, and enabling the people who keep them to earn more from their existing lifestyle.

Full reference of the paper/report:

LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP, & FAO, 2010. Adding value to livestock diversity - Marketing to promote local breeds and improve livelihoods. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 168. FAO, Rome. www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1283e/i1283e.pdf


Case studies in Somalia

Case Study

Case study details

Adding Value to Livestock Diversity: Marketing to Promote Local Breeds and Improve Livelihoods

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP and FAO
Location(s): Latin America, Africa, Asia: India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Argentina, South Africa, Mauritania, Somalia

Abstract:

Throughout the world and over centuries, small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists have developed animal breeds that are well suited to their local conditions. These breeds are hardy and disease-resistant; they can survive on little water and scant vegetation. They can continue producing meat and milk in areas where modern, imported breeds succumb without expensive housing, feed and veterinary care. They enable people to earn a living in otherwise inhospitable areas, and embody valuable genetics for future breeding efforts. Nevertheless, these breeds are in danger of disappearing, pushed out by modern production techniques and out-competed by exotic breeds. Finding niche markets for their products is one possible way of ensuring the survival of these breeds, and enabling the people who keep them to earn more from their existing lifestyle.

Full reference of the paper/report:

LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP, & FAO, 2010. Adding value to livestock diversity - Marketing to promote local breeds and improve livelihoods. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 168. FAO, Rome. www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1283e/i1283e.pdf


Case studies in Tanzania

Case Study

Case study details

Adoption of Interrelated Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Smallholder Systems: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

Study from: 2010, published in 2013
Authors: M. Kassie, M. Jaleta, B. Shiferaw, F. Mmbando and M. Mekuria
Location(s): Tanzania (District: Karatu, Mbulu, Kilosa and Movemro)

Abstract:

Soil fertility depletion is considered one of the main biophysical limiting factors for increasing per capita food production for smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The adoption and diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs), as a way to tackle this challenge, has become an important issue in the development policy agenda in the region. This paper examines the adoption decisions for SAPs, using recent primary data of multiple plot-level observations collected in 4 districts and 60 villages of rural Tanzania. The paper employs a multivariate probit technique to model simultaneous interdependent adoption decisions by farm households. The analysis reveals that rainfall, insects and disease shocks, government effectiveness in provision of extension services, tenure status of plot, social capital, plot location and size, and household assets, all influence farmer investment in SAPs. Policies that target SAPs and are aimed at organizing farmers into associations, improving land tenure security, and enhancing skills of civil servants can increase uptake of SAPs in smallholder systems.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Kassie, M., Jaleta, M., Shiferaw, B., Mmbando, F., & Mekuria, M., 2013. Adoption of interrelated sustainable agricultural practices in smallholder systems: Evidence from rural Tanzania. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 80(3): 525-540. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162512001898

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Rhino Conservation in a Land-Use Context within the Region

Study from: 2005, published in 2005
Authors: A. Spenceley and J. Barnes
Location(s): South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Botswana and Zambia

Abstract:

In December 2004 IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa commissioned an economic analysis of rhino conservation in southern Africa. The aim of the analysis was to explore the rationale for regarding rhino as "flagship species" in terms of: The extent to which they might “add value" to existing wildlife operations in state and private areas; The extent to which their protection and monitoring needs might confer blanket protection for other wildlife components that might be vulnerable to human pressures (notably poaching, and including the converse possibility, that rhino may attract poachers into an area where other wildlife is then poached); The extent to they might contribute to community-based tourism and thereby to rural livelihoods, including comment on the opportunities for "direct incentives" payments to landholders or communities who ensure breeding opportunities for this species; The extent to which, in view of the above, they might be catalytic to land-use changes that entail a move towards wildlife production from alternative land-uses such as livestock production. Economic analyses were to concentrate on market values of relevant goods and services rather than non-use values, and to outline the issues and implications of consumptive uses of rhino within the SADC region. The analysis was essentially a pilot study that was designed to achieve an initial general insight into economic issues surrounding black and white rhino in southern Africa. Therefore rather than providing a comparative analysis between sites, or longitudinal evaluations, the study is largely descriptive for one or two case study sites within each part of the analysis. Where the availability of data has allowed, economic scenario analyses have been performed to generate realistic predictions for revenue generation in the future for enterprises and reserves that support rhino populations. In addition to presenting economic data regarding rhino around southern Africa, the discussion attempts to outline the issues and implications of consumptive and non-consumptive use of rhinos within the SADC region. The study considered whether rhino added value to wildlife operations in state and private areas by evaluating revenue generating activities and costs associated with rhino in South Africa and Namibia. The evaluation concluded that both black and white rhino provide a net benefit to both state and private protected areas through both consumptive and non-consumptive use. Considering the development of conservancies in Namibia and Zimbabwe, rhino have played a pivotal role in motivating land-use change. In Namibia the community-based natural resource management program embraces a major portion of all communal lands in the country, so that large areas are now allocated to wildlife uses, alongside livestock. In Zimbabwe financial benefits associated with the presence of rhino on private land catalysed the change in use from livestock to wildlife. A series of factors combined to bring about this change, which included an enabling political environment and legislation, support by WWF and appropriate financial assistance, the unsuitability of the habitat for livestock production and co-operation between neighbouring landowners. Both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of rhino have the potential to generate significant amounts of economic income and to contribute to the livelihoods of rural people. As land uses, they tend to be complementary and not mutually exclusive. This and other studies have shown that combinations of both non-consumptive and consumptive uses will generate maximum benefits. To provide the incentives needed for massive investment in rhino conservation, all possible uses should be explored for rhino.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Spencely, A., & Barnes, J., 2005. Economic analysis of rhino conservation in a land-use context region. SADC Regional Programme for Rhino Conservation. Harare, Zimbabwe. anna.spenceley.co.uk/files/Spenceley%20&%20Barnes.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Valuation Assessment of Land Resources, Ecosystems Services and Resource Degradation in Tanzania

Study from: 2011, published in 2011
Authors: A.E Majule, P.Z. Yanda, R.Y.M. Kangalawe and R. Lokina
Location(s): Tanzania

Abstract:

The management of land resources is the basis for the livelihoods of most of the world’s poor people and a key part of the national economy throughout the developing world. The contribution of the land resources to the national development and the potential of these resources for poverty reduction and sustainable development are too often not recognized. Review of secondary data has shown that attempts to undertake economic valuation of land resources are very limited, indicating that such work is not fully done in Tanzania. Such valuations are particularly important in facilitating sustainable land management practices. The study involved a diversity of methodological approaches, including desk review, stakeholder consultations, focus group discussions, and field observations. The exercise involved review of studies that have recently been conducted in the areas of deforestation and rural livelihoods; land degradation and farming; ecosystem valuation; including experiences from other countries. Stakeholders’ consultations were conducted to fill information gap identified during the desk review. Another checklist was used for Focus Group Discussions with representatives from communities and village governments. The emphasis was to generate evidence to support sustainable land management policies and investment based on demonstrating their existing and potential contribution to national development and poverty reduction. The Market Price Valuation Methods was used in the economic valuation of land use options along with key economic activities undertaken by communities. This method is best adopted when natural resources are transacted in formal markets. The total amount of Carbon stored in any ecosystem was accounted by the Above Ground Biomass, Below Ground Biomass and the Soil Organic Carbon. It is estimated that the ratio of the vegetal carbon stock and soil organic carbon is 40 to 60 respectively.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Majule, A.E., Yanda, P.Z., Kangalawe, R.Y.M., & Lokina, R., 2011. Economic valuation assessment of land resources, ecosystems services and resource degradation in Tanzania. Global Mechanism. Rome, Italy. www.theoslo.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Economic-valuation_Final_report-Tanzania_EDITED.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Natural Conservationists? Evaluating the Impact of Pastoralist Land Use Practices on Tanzania's Wildlife Economy

Study from: 2011, published in 2012
Authors: F. Nelson
Location(s): Tanzania (northern)

Abstract:

The land management practices of pastoralist Maasai communities have a major bearing on landscapes and wildlife habitats in northern Tanzania and play a key role in maintaining habitat for one of the world's most spectacular assemblages of terrestrial large mammals. Pastoralists manage lands according to locally devised rules designed to manage and conserve key resources such as pastures and water sources. Dry season grazing reserves are an important part of traditional land management systems in many pastoralist communities, providing a ‘grass bank’ for livestock to consume during the long dry season when forage invariably becomes scarce and domestic animals are stressed for water and nutrients. Because of the scale and importance of northern Tanzania's wildlife-based tourism industry, and its indirect dependence on communal lands under the authority of pastoralists, these land use practices have an important economic dimension. By conserving large proportions of northern Tanzania's wildlife ecosystems, local pastoralist communities collectively make an important contribution to the national and regional economy. Using data regarding the degree to which wildlife depends on pastoralist lands in different ecosystems, and the relative importance of different areas in terms of generating revenue for the northern safari circuit, the annual value of pastoralist land uses to the wildlife-based tourism industry in northern Tanzania is estimated at approximately US $83.5 million. The economic value of pastoralists' contribution to wildlife conservation highlights the importance of Tanzanian policies in land, livestock, tourism, and wildlife sectors prioritizing measures that promote communal rangeland management and support traditional land use practices.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Nelson, F., 2012. Natural conservationists? Evaluating the impact of pastoralist land use practices on Tanzania's wildlife economy. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2:15. www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/2/1/15

Case Study

Case study details

Review of the Literature on Pastoral Economics and Marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganada, and Sudan

Study from: 2006, published in 2006
Authors: M. Odhiambo
Location(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan

Abstract:

This is a report to the World Initiative on Sustainable Pastoralism within the framework of its Economics of Pastoralism consultancy, which seeks to collate and document information on economic valuations of pastoralism in the East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, as well as Sudan. We were however not able to gather much data and information about Sudan, with the result that the report is mainly concentrated on the three East African countries. The report confirms the paucity of data about the value of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies, not because that contribution is lacking, but mainly because the analytical framework of these economies does not permit its full appreciation. Even where efforts have been made to collect data, this has been limited to data on livestock and livestock products such as milk, hides and skins sold at national markets. Non-monetised contributions such as manure, draught power, control of bush and weeds, recycling of household waste are not captured or acknowledged. Nor is the contribution that pastoralism makes to the conservation and wildlife-based tourism. At the heart of this inadequate appreciation of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies is a pervasive misperception of pastoralism and pastoralists across the region. Despite the fact that pastoralism is one of the most researched livelihood systems in the world, and that it continues to hold an abiding enchantment especially to Western researchers even today, the perception of pastoralism within policy circles in the region remains clouded by stereotypes and myths. Many think of pastoralism, not as a livelihood system but as a stage in the transition of society from backwardness to modernization. Pastoralists, and in particular, nomadic pastoralists are thus seen as holding on to a livelihood system and practices that are not appropriate to current imperatives of social, cultural and economic change. These perceptions exist at the highest levels of government, and inform and define the type of interventions that governments have for years implemented in pastoral areas, with a view to transforming pastoralism and pastoralists and bringing them to the levels of modernity. These interventions have invariably targeted the livestock component of pastoralism, and sought to transform pastoralists “from being nomadic cattle herders to being settled modern livestock keepers”. It is not surprising that these interventions have invariably failed. They are founded on a poor understanding of the rationale of pastoral livelihood practices and land use. They are topdown and inspired by a desire to civilize pastoralists. Worse still, the interventions are premised on a perception of pastoralists as irrational and pastoralism itself as a problem, associating it with environmental degradation, conflict, and resistance to change. They are informed by the generalization that pastoralism “is constrained by poor animal husbandry, lack of modernization, accumulation of stock beyond carrying capacity and lack of market orientation…”. This study is based on a desk review of published material that we were able to unearth in libraries and on the Internet. We have already alluded to the fact that we were unable to obtain much on Sudan. However, even with respect to the other three countries, there are substantial information gaps in so far as the economics of pastoralism is concerned.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Odhiambo, M., 2006. Review of the literature on pastoral economics and marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and the Sudan. Report prepared for the World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism, IUCN EARO RECONCILE, Kenya. cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/eastern_africa_reports.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

The Lake Victoria Ecosystem: A deeper look into its true worth

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: Benson Rwegoshora Bashange; Chanoine Marie; Franz Vockinger; Janek Toepper; Leah-Rehema Murerwa; Rose Anarfiwaah Oppong; Yacoubou Kadade
Location(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

Abstract:

Full reference of the paper/report:

Rwegoshora Bashange, B., Chanoine, M., Vockinger, F., Toepper, J., Murerwa, L.R., Anarfiwaah Oppong, R., Kadade, Y. 2014. The Lake Victoria Ecosystem: A deeper look into its true worth. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Traditional Forest Restoration in Tanzania

Study from: 2011, published in 2011
Authors: E. Barrow and A. Shah
Location(s): Tanzania (Shinyanga region)

Abstract:

Through local knowledge and traditional land use practices degraded forest landscapes were restored and the livelihood of indigenous people improved. But gains need to be protected.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barrow, E., & Shah, A., 2011. TEEBcase: Traditional forest restoration in Tanzania. TEEB. www.teebweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/TEEBcase-Traditional-forest-restoration-Tanzania-.pdf


Case studies in Ethiopia

Adoption of Multiple Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Rural EthiopiaAdoption of Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Evidence from a Semi-arid Region of EthiopiaAre Soil Conservation Technologies “Win-Win?" A Case Study of Anjeni in the Northern Western Ethiopian HighlandsAssessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case StudiesEconomic Analysis of Closing Degraded Boswellia Papyrifera Dry Forest from Human Intervention: A Study from Tigray, Northern EthiopiaEconomic Valuation of Land Restoration: The Case of Exclosures Established on Communal Grazing Lands in Tigray, EthiopiaEconomics of Land Degradation (ELD) Ethiopia Case Study. Soil Degradation and Sustainable Land Management in the Rainfed Agricultural Areas of Ethiopia: An Assessment of the Economic ImplicationsEstimating Returns to Soil Conservation Adoption in the Northern Ethiopian HighlandsHarnessing Pastoralists; Indigenous Knowledge for Rangeland Management: Three African Case StudiesLand Degradation, Drought and Food Security in a Less-Favoured Area in the Ethiopian Highlands: A Bio-economic Model with Market ImperfectionsLivestock Marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A Review of Policies and PracticePastoralism in Ethiopia: Its Total Economic Value and Development ChallengesRural Households' Demand for Frankincense Forest Conservation in Tigray, Ethiopia: A Contingent Valuation AnalysisThe Economics of Sustainable Land Management Practices in the Ethiopian HighlandsThe Role of Non Timber Forest Products to Rural Livelihoods and Forest Conservation: A Case Study at Harana Bulluk District Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia
Case Study

Case study details

Adoption of Multiple Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Rural Ethiopia

Study from: 2010, published in 2013
Authors: H. Teklewold, M. Kassie and B. Shiferaw
Location(s): Ethiopia (Districts: Shala, Bako Tibe, Gobu seyo, Adami tulu, Pawe, Hawassa, Meskana, Dugda Bora, Badawacho)

Abstract:

The adoption and diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) have become an important issue in the development-policy agenda for Sub-Saharan Africa, especially as a way to tackle land degradation, low agricultural productivity, and poverty. However, the adoption rates of SAPs remain below expected levels. This paper analyzes the factors that facilitate or impede the probability and level of adoption of interrelated SAPs, using recent data from multiple plot-level observations in rural Ethiopia. Multivariate and ordered probit models are applied to the modeling of adoption decisions by farm households facing multiple SAPs which can be adopted in various combinations. The results show that there is a significant correlation between SAPs, suggesting that adoptions of SAPs are interrelated. The analysis further shows that both the probability and the extent of adoption of SAPs are influenced by many factors: a household’s trust in government support, credit constraints, spouse education, rainfall and plot- level disturbances, household wealth, social capital and networks, labor availability, plot and market access. These results imply that policy makers and development practitioners should seek to strengthen local institutions and service providers, maintain or increase household asset bases, and establish and strengthen social protection schemes, to improve the adoption of SAPs.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Teklewold, H., Kassie, M., & Shiferaw, B., 2013. Adoption of multiple sustainable agricultural practices in rural Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Economics. 64(3): 597-623. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1477-9552.12011/pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Evidence from a Semi-arid Region of Ethiopia

Study from: 2000 and 2006, published in 2009
Authors: M. Kassie, P. Zikhali, K. Manjur and S. Edwards
Location(s): Ethiopia (Tigray region)

Abstract:

In the wake of the resource constraints for external farm inputs, faced by farmers in developing countries, sustainable agriculture practices that rely on renewable local or farm resources presents desirable options for enhancing agriculture productivity. In this study, we used plot-level data from the semi-arid region of Ethiopia, Tigray, to investigate the factors influencing farmers’ decisions to adopt sustainable agriculture practices, with a particular focus on conservation tillage and compost. Multinomial logit models are used to analyze the determinants of adoption of these practices. In addition, stochastic dominance analysis is used to compare the productivity impacts of compost with that of chemical fertilizer based on a six-year cross-sectional farm-level dataset. While there is heterogeneity with regard to the factors that influence the choice to use either tillage or compost, results from a multinomial logit analysis underscored the importance of both plot and household characteristics on adoption decisions. In particular, we found that poverty and access to information, among other factors, impact the choice of sustainable farming practices significantly. We also found evidence that the impact of gender on technology adoption is technology-specific, while the significance of plot characteristics indicated that the decision to adopt certain technologies is location-specific. Furthermore, the use of stochastic dominance analysis supported the contention that sustainable farming practices enhance productivity. They even proved to be superior to use of chemical fertilizers—justifying the need to investigate factors that influence adoption of these practices and to use this knowledge to formulate policies that encourage adoption.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Kassie, M., Zikhali, P., Manjur, K., & Edwards, S., 2009. Adoption of sustainable agriculture practices: Evidence from a semi-arid region of Ethiopia. Natural Resources Forum.33(3): 189-198. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1477-8947.2009.01224.x/abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Are Soil Conservation Technologies “Win-Win?" A Case Study of Anjeni in the Northern Western Ethiopian Highlands

Study from: 2001, published in 2011
Authors: M. Kassie, G. Kohlin, R. Bulffstone and S. Holden
Location(s): Ethiopia (Amhara region; District: Dembecha; Location: Anjeni)

Abstract:

This study measures the impact of fanya juu terraces on the net value of crop income in a high-rainfall area in the Ethiopian highlands using cross-sectional multiple plot observations. Using propensity score matching methods we find that the net value of crop income for plots with fanya juu terraces is lower than for plots without fanya juu terraces. This finding makes it difficult to avoid concluding that while the technologies might reduce soil erosion and associated off-site effects, they do so at the expense of poor farmers in the Ethiopian highlands. Therefore, fanya juu terraces cannot be characterized as a “win-win” measure to reduce soil erosion. New agricultural technologies need to be profitable to the farmer if they are to be adopted and sustained.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Kassie, M., Kohlin, G., Bulffstone, R., & Holden, S., 2011. Are soil conservation technologies “Win-Win?” A case study of Anjeni in the northern western Ethiopian highlands. Natural Resources Forum. 35: 89-99. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1477-8947.2011.01379.x/abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case Studies

Study from: 2003 (based on data from 1986-1999), published in 2003
Authors: L. Berry, J. Olson and D. Campbell
Location(s): China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile, Indonesia

Abstract:

This study, commissioned by the Global Mechanism with support from the World Bank examined available national data on the extent, costs and current remedial actions concerning land degradation and sustainable land management in seven pilot countries. This was a desk study, but included countries where the authors had detailed long term knowledge. The results of the work are presented in seven case studies of China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile and Indonesia; and this overview paper, which presents a synthesis of the lessons learned from the cases and from a review of the current academic and report literature.

Both encouraging and cautionary lessons can be drawn from this work. There are situations in the seven pilot countries and others cited in the literature, where sustainable and economic levels of productivity have been achieved under conditions of ongoing soil and water conservation. There are even stories of good application of low cost technologies. There are however other situations where poverty and land degradation appear to feed off each other in a downward spiral with the disruption of both farming and socio-economic systems.

In most cases the best available national assessments suggested that agricultural productivity is reduced by land degradation at a minimum rate of 3 to 7% and that investment in remedial action was an order of magnitude smaller than estimated costs. Governments were aware of the problem but responses especially in the past were typically top-down and directed to the on-site physical problems of soil and nutrient loss. On the other hand it is clear that policy issues can be critical factors in causing or reducing land degradation.

One of the concerns raised by the study was the incompleteness and inconsistency in the basic data on costs of land degradation and there is a case for a more comprehensive approach to this topic. However, information is sufficient to open up initial dialogues with respective governments on new approaches and increased investment in sustainable land management, targeting more integrated and holistic approaches and involving local and regional stakeholders in the activity at all stages.

One key recommendation suggests that the most efficient approach to mitigation would include a careful analysis of the policy framework most likely to facilitate mitigation through direct and indirect measures, capacity building and a focus on alternative livelihoods that would improve rural conditions and address poverty – degradation linkages.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Berry, L., Olson, J., & Campbell, D., 2003. Assessing the extent, cost and impact of land degradation at the national level: findings and lessons learned from seven pilot case studies. Global Mechanism. global-mechanism.org/edocman/download.php

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Closing Degraded Boswellia Papyrifera Dry Forest from Human Intervention: A Study from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Study from: 2003, published in 2007
Authors: M. Tilahun, R.Olschewski, C. Kleinn and K. Gebrehiwot
Location(s): Ethiopia (Tigray, Tanqua Abergelle)

Abstract:

In Ethiopia, environmental degradation leads to a reduction of forest areas with economically important tree species like Boswellia papyrifera. In an attempt to reverse this development and assist natural rehabilitation, closing degraded forest from free grazing, fuel wood collection and other interference is practiced in Tigray. Sustainability of this management will, among other things, depend on the resources' tangible benefits. This study aimed to determine and compare net benefits (in Ethiopian Birr (ETB) per ha) from the closed and open Boswellia papyrifera forestlands. Production and household surveys were carried out in Jijike and Siye tabias of Abergelle woreda in northern Ethiopia. Data on costs and benefits of frankincense production were collected from firms trading the product. Net benefits from forestlands and croplands were determined using the Net Present Value criterion. The estimated mean frankincense productions were 127 kg/ha/yr for closed forest land and 84.54 kg/ha/yr for open for free grazing forestland. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between per tree mean frankincense yield of closed and open sites. The average grass harvest from closed area was 2851 kg/ha/yr. The financial Net Present Values were 8622 ETB/ha for closed and 6468 ETB/ha for open forestlands. These values were by 4574 ETB and 2005 ETB higher than the sum of NPV from crop and crop residuals of a hectare of cropland in the study area of the two sites, respectively. Exporting frankincense could generate foreign exchange of 53.28 and 39.05 USD/ha/yr from closed and open sites, respectively. Rural households earn about 74% of the annual total revenue (ETB/ha) from closed and open area as wage for tapping and collecting frankincense and using of grass. Sensitivity analysis showed that managing degraded Boswellia papyrifera forestland as closed area always generates a higher NPV than the open one in case of changes in discount rate and prices of inputs and outputs. Thus, managing the forest through closed areas is a competitive land-use alternative and provides higher net benefits than both open forestland and agricultural croplands.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Tilahun, M., Olschewski, R., Kleinn, C., & Gebrehiwot, K., 2007. Economic analysis of closing degraded Boswellia papyrifera dry forest from human intervention: A study from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics. 9: 996–1005. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389934106001511

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Valuation of Land Restoration: The Case of Exclosures Established on Communal Grazing Lands in Tigray, Ethiopia

Study from: 2008, published in 2011
Authors: W. Mekuria, V. Edzo, M. Tilahun and R. Olschewski
Location(s): Ethiopia ( Northern Highlands of Tigray)

Abstract:

Converting degraded grazing lands into exclosures is one option to restore soil nutrients and to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. We estimate the economic value of such a conversion and assess the perception of local communities concerning exclosures in the highlands of Tigray, Ethiopia. Our research combines a soil and vegetation study with a socio-economic survey, and a financial analysis. Over a period of 30 years, sequestered carbon dioxide was 246Mg ha -1, total soil nitrogen increased by 7.9Mg ha-1 and additional available phosphorous stocks amounted to 40 kg ha-1. The Net Present Value of exclosure’s ecosystem services under consideration was about 28 per cent (837 US $) higher than alternative wheat production. Carbon revenues alone added up to only about 44 per cent of the net revenues of wheat production. This indicates that (i) carbon market revenues only, would not generate sufficient incentives to establish additional exclosures, and (ii) if all benefits are taken into account and financially rewarded, exclosures are competitive to alternatives land uses. We also identified substantial opportunities to mobilize the local communities in efforts to establish exclosures, given that more than 75 per cent had a positive view on exclosures effectiveness to restore degraded soils and vegetation. We conclude that a comprehensive analysis is necessary to consider the ecological as well as economic and social impacts of exclosures. Our findings are important information for local decision makers and may provide incentives for the establishment of further exclosures in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia, thereby contributing to a sustainable local development process.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Mekuria, W., Veldkamp, E., Tilahun, M., & Olschewski, R., 2011. Economic valuation of land restoration: The case of exclosures established on communal grazing lands in Tigray, Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development. 22(3): 334-344. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ldr.1001/abstract;jsessionid=C27634A782BE8346091309DB1401D902.d01t04

Case Study

Case study details

Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) Ethiopia Case Study. Soil Degradation and Sustainable Land Management in the Rainfed Agricultural Areas of Ethiopia: An Assessment of the Economic Implications

Study from: 2014, published in 2015
Authors: Kaspar Hurni; Gete Zeleke; Menale Kassie; Berhan Tegegne; Tibebu Kassawmar; Ermias Teferi; Aderajew Moges; Deme Tadesse; Mohamed Ahmed; Yohannes Degu; Zeleke Kebebew; Elias Hodel; Ahmed Amdihun; Asnake Mekuriaw; Berhanu Debele; Georg Deichert, and Hans Hurni
Location(s): Ethiopia

Abstract:

The rainfed agricultural areas of Ethiopia (almost a synonym for the Ethiopian Highlands) are a para¬digmatic example for doing an ELD Case Study. The highlands are favourable for rainfed agricultural activities, a main source of livelihood for about 87 per cent of Ethiopia’s population (94 million in 2014) and around 75 per cent of the country’s livestock. However, land degradation in this area is considered to be one of the severest cases worldwide.

This case study provides a spatially explicit assess¬ment of the extent of land degradation (soil erosion by water) and the costs and benefits of sustainable land management measures. As a basis for the final cost-benefit analysis, the study conducted a land cover mapping which was complemented by a conservation structure mapping. The unit of analysis is a pixel of 30 m by 30 m, in line with the resolution of the Landsat imagery used for assessing land cover. In total the study area covers more than 600 million pixels. Land cover was mapped using an approach that combined visual delimitation of units of analysis with expert knowledge and automated image clas¬sification. This approach made it possible to distin¬guish cultivated land (i.e., cropland, which in Ethi¬opia consists of land currently being ploughed or harvested, land with growing crops, land under mixed crop and trees system, and fallow land) from other land use or land cover classes. For the conservation structure mapping, the study devised on an approxi¬mate expert-based modelling approach incorporating various assumptions about the extent, quality and spatial distribution of such structures. Soil erosion and deposition values were estimated using pixel based landscape information and the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model, which works with the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) parameters. The USPED model was adapted to Ethiopian conditions based on evidence from the Soil Conservation Research Programme, and calibrated and validated using data from for¬mer research stations. These adaptations made it possible to produce a pixel based soil erosion and sediment deposition model for the whole study area and even more importantly, to run different scenarios of invest¬ments in the cropland and show their effects after 30 years. Therefore, the study undertakes an estimation of future crop production for a 30 year time period by examining four different scenarios each modelling a different variation of conservation structure distribution and fertilizer application. The estimation algorithm was calibrated using infor¬mation on productivity from reports of the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Hurni K, Zeleke G, Kassie M, Tegegne B, Kassawmar T, Teferi E, Moges A, Tadesse D, Ahmed M, Degu Y, Kebebew Z, Hodel E, Amdihun A, Mekuriaw A, Debele B, Deichert G, Hurni H. 2015. Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) Ethiopia Case Study. Soil Degradation and Sustainable Land Management in the Rainfed Agricultural Areas of Ethiopia: An Assessment of the Economic Implications. Report for the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative. 94 pp. Available from: www.eld-initiative.org

Case Study

Case study details

Estimating Returns to Soil Conservation Adoption in the Northern Ethiopian Highlands

Study from: 1999 and 2000, published in 2008
Authors: M. Kassie, J. Pender, M. Yesuf, G. Kohlin, R. Bulffstone and E. Mulugeta
Location(s): Ethiopia (Amghara and Tigray regions)

Abstract:

Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient depletion presents a threat to food security and sustainability of agricultural production in many developing countries. Governments and development agencies have invested substantial resources to promote soil conservation practices as part of an effort to improve environmental conditions and reduce poverty. However, there is very limited rigorous empirical work that has been done on the economics of soil conservation technology adoption. This paper investigates the impact of stone bunds on value of crop production per hectare in low and high rainfall areas of the Ethiopian highlands using cross-sectional data from more than 900 households, with multiple plots per household. We have used modified random effects models, stochastic dominance analysis (SDA) and matching methods to ensure robustness. The parametric regression and SDA estimates are based on matched observations obtained from nearest neighbor matching using propensity score estimates. This is important, because conventional regression and SDA estimates are obtained without ensuring that there actually exist comparable conserved and non-conserved plots on the distribution of covariates. We use matching methods, random effects and Mundlak’s approach to control for selection and endogeneity bias that may arise due to correlation of unobserved heterogeneity and observed explanatory variables. We find that the three methods tell a consistent story. Plots with stone bunds are more productive than those without such technologies in semi-arid areas but not in higher rainfall areas, apparently because the moisture conserving benefits of this technology are more beneficial in drier areas. This implies that the performance of stone bunds varies by agro-ecology type, suggesting the need for designing and implementing appropriate site-specific technologies.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Kassie, M., Pender, J., Yesuf, M., Kohlin, G., Bulffstone, R., & Mulugeta, E., 2008. Estimating returns to soil conservation adoption in the northern Ethiopian highlands. Agricultural Economics. 38: 213-232. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2008.00295.x/abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Harnessing Pastoralists; Indigenous Knowledge for Rangeland Management: Three African Case Studies

Study from: 2012, published in 2012
Authors: G. Oba
Location(s): Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda

Abstract:

This article reports a rapid method for rangeland assessments in Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda by harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous knowledge among the Orma, Afar and Karamojong pastoralists. The study developed and evaluated a methodological framework for conducting joint assessments with pastoralist range scouts. The framework has four components: selection of ecological and anthropogenic indicators, indicator integration, evaluation of indicator outcomes and regional decision-making systems. The feedbacks between different components were used for information transfer. The framework was applied to the three case studies (using participatory methods). The scouts conducted rangeland assessments using ecological and anthropogenic indicators. Soils, and then vegetation, and finally livestock production were used as the main indicators for understanding rangeland degradation. In addition, pastoralists used key-plant species to assess landscape grazing suitability and soils to assess landscape-grazing potential. The latter is critical for evaluating potential stocking densities that each landscape could support during the wet or dry grazing seasons. For anthropogenic indicators herders used milk yield, body hair condition, weight gain and mating frequency to assess livestock production performances. Pastoralist scouts assessed rangeland degradation and trends using historical knowledge of the landscapes. The findings confirmed comparable knowledge systems among the three pastoral communities. The methods can be applied across regions where pastoralism still dominates the rural economy. The system of indigenous rangeland assessments and monitoring could rapidly provide information needed by policy makers. Harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous rangeland knowledge has implications for participatory research, for verifying and testing methods, as well as for sharing information in order to promote practical rangeland management.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Oba, G., 2012. Harnessing pastoralists' indigenous knowledge for rangeland management: Three African case studies. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2:1. www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/pdf/2041-7136-2-1.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Land Degradation, Drought and Food Security in a Less-Favoured Area in the Ethiopian Highlands: A Bio-economic Model with Market Imperfections

Study from: 2002 (based on data from 1986-2000), published in 2004
Authors: S. Holden and B. Shiferaw
Location(s): Ethiopia (highlands)

Abstract:

This paper presents a bio-economic model of Andit Tid, a severely degraded crop-livestock farming system with high population density and good market access in the highlands of Ethiopia. Land degradation, population growth, stagnant technology, and drought threaten food security in the area. Drought or weather risk appears to have increased in recent years. The bio-economic model is used to analyse the combined effects of land degradation, population growth, market imperfections and increased risk of drought on household production, welfare and food security. We find that the indirect effects of drought on household welfare through the impact on crop and livestock prices are larger than the direct production effects of drought. Provision and adoption of credit for fertiliser, although risky in itself, may lead to increased grain production and improved household welfare and food security. Provision of credit may have a negative effect on conservation incentives but this effect may be mitigated by linking a conservation requirement to the provision of credit for fertiliser.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Holden, S., & Shiferaw, B., 2004. Land degradation, drought and food security in a less-favoured area in the Ethiopian highlands: a bio-economic model with market imperfections. Agricultural Economics. 30(1): 31-49. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169515003000975

Case Study

Case study details

Livestock Marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A Review of Policies and Practice

Study from: based on data from 1998-2008, published in 2008
Authors: Y. Aklilu
Location(s): Ethiopia and Kenya

Abstract:

The last few years have witnessed a renewed interest in the export of live animals and meat from Kenya and Ethiopia. In both cases, the private sector has taken the lead in initiating or advocating for the revival of the export business, prompting the respective governments to pay attention to the potentials of livestock trade. In Kenya, this move was enhanced by the formation of a new Ministry for Livestock and Fisheries. This has led to the re-operationalization of the Kenya Meat Commission, new plans to set up satellite abattoirs in strategic locations along the northern corridor, innovative approaches to improve dilapidated market infrastructure and a continued interest in addressing sanitary requirements related to livestock and meat trade. Kenya has also incorporated a livestock marketing policy in the national livestock policy document (still in draft). Prior to this, interested groups such as the Kenya Livestock Marketing Council, initially supported by Arid Land Resource Management Project, had set up various district- based livestock marketing groups and played a major role in raising awareness and establishing linkages between producers and potential importers. During the last ten years in Ethiopia, the private sector has been active in setting up export abattoirs and also in the exporting of live animals. Government support to this sector was provided through the Livestock Marketing Authority, under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development at the time, forming exporter’s associations, identifying potential export markets, facilitating export procedures and so on. Bilateral programs specifically designed to address sanitary issues were also on the fore. An increasing number of donors (USAID and EU in particular), FAO and NGOs were also engaged in supporting livestock marketing from pastoral areas either through national, regional, cross-border or area-based programs. Some of these programs have been or are being implemented through regional organizations such as the Africa Union/Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and the Intergovernmental Authority for Development , and some through national based institutions or as stand-alone projects. Many of the NGOs operate at the local level with a few exceptions that operate at the national level. Considering the size of the human population that depends on livestock production in both countries, the development of domestic and export markets is critical to alleviating poverty, raising revenues, and continuing the trend towards more market-orientation. In realization of this potential, both governments are taking some encouraging measures towards promoting the marketing of livestock, specifically from pastoral areas. However, livestock and meat marketing, especially exports, is a complex process. The subsistence production systems in Ethiopia and Kenya cannot compete with commercial producers in Brazil or Australia. International trade barriers (SPS, tariff and non-tariff) impose huge limitations on both countries. Export marketing and promotional strategies in destination countries are almost non-existent. There is no economy of scale to offset costs. In short, the livestock and meat marketing systems are not as efficient nor as streamlined as those of their competitors. Yet, these problems are not insurmountable in the long-term. Some require substantial investments, for example, in animal health and SPS systems, infrastructure and processing facilities. Others may require a combination of institutional and attitudinal changes such as shifting the mode of production to meet what the market demands. Competing in the international market entails acquiring and practicing savvy marketing strategies along with availing the right product on time. Obviously, a public and private sector partnership is crucial to achieving long-term objectives. More importantly, an appropriate policy framework is the pre- requisite for providing an enabling environment for all actors. This paper will look into some policy and operational issues.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Aklilu, Y., 2008. Livestock marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A review of policies and practice. Feinstein International Centre, Addis Ababa. wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/download/attachments/24922042/Livestock+Marketing+in+Kenya+and+Ethiopia+-+Aklilu+2008.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Pastoralism in Ethiopia: Its Total Economic Value and Development Challenges

Study from: 2009, published in 2009
Authors: SOS Sahel Ethiopia
Location(s): Ethiopia

Abstract:

Ethiopia is a country of an agrarian economy characterized by high population growth, huge dependence on erratic rainfall, low agricultural productivity, structural bottlenecks and land-lockedness). The agricultural sector accounts for about 45% of GDP, supports over 80% of rural population and supplies 90% of the nationally exported commodities. The sector is characterized by low productivity partly due to low investment level in the sector (particularly in smallholder farmers) backward farming technologies, low farm level capacity, land degradation and recurrent drought The last few years the performance of the sector has notably improved. Ethiopia is the richest country in the livestock inventories in Africa with the total of about 41 million heads of cattle, 25 million heads of sheep 23 million of goats 41million of chicken, 5.7million of equines (donkey, horses and mules) and 2.3 million of camels. The richness of the country is both in terms of large number and diversity of livestock population. In the Ethiopian economy, the livestock sector creates livelihood for 65% of the rural population and accounts for about 12 – 15% of the export earnings of the country in terms of live animals, meat and hides and skins exports Despite this large number of livestock population and its diversity, the benefits obtained from is low compared to other African countries and the world standard. The productivity problems are linked to availability and quality of feeding resources, animal breeds and type of production systems. In addition, the fact that there is a lack of proper appreciation for the sector in the including adequate account for its role and significance in the economy means negligence in terms of proper support to raise the productivity and role of this sector. Accurate livestock database disaggregated by the lowland and highland farming systems is lacking leading to a failure to properly inform policy makers to design appropriate national level livestock development strategies and policies1. One other reason is probably that policy makers have viewed livestock mainly in terms of their contributions to agricultural activities (as traction power) and hence their contribution to the livelihoods of the poor has been neglected. Pastoral areas in Ethiopia, which cover about 0.7 million square km, are generally known as the range lands. These areas support about 9.8 million people (12% of total population of the country) of which 56 % are pastorals, 32% are agro-pastoral and the remaining 22% are urban dwellers. Although pastoralism plays significant role in the Ethiopian economy, this sector with huge economic, social and environmental roles and benefits has been largely marginalized by the development policies and strategies in the past. The vast rangeland is denied the necessary economic and social infrastructure and services as the meager development effects attained in the in the country could not be regionally balanced taking account of the needs in the low land pastoral areas. Development interventions, if they took place remained to be extractive simply by facilitating the market off-take of the livestock resource without being people and pastoral system based development intervention. Such lack of overall Pastoralism development strategies and policies emanate from the under valuation of the total economic benefits of pastoralism

Full reference of the paper/report:

SOS Sahel Ethiopia, 2009. Pastoralism in Ethiopia: It's total economic value and development challenges. World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism - GEF UNEP and IUCN. data.iucn.org/wisp/documents_english/TEV/TEV%20Ethiopia%20Final_JD.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Rural Households' Demand for Frankincense Forest Conservation in Tigray, Ethiopia: A Contingent Valuation Analysis

Study from: 2009, published in 2013
Authors: M. Tilahun, L. Vranken, B. Muys, J. Deckers, K. Gebregziabher, K. Gebrehiwot, H. Bauer and E. Mathijs
Location(s): Ethiopia (Tigray)

Abstract:

Frankincense from Boswellia papyrifera forest is a traded commodity used in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and chemical industries. Ethiopia is an important producer of frankincense, but the resource is under continuous degradation and requires conservation. We applied a contingent valuation to assess rural households' willingness to pay and willingness to contribute labor for BPF conservation. Next to the bid, willingness to pay is influenced most by income, education, and willingness to contribute labor by family labor and gender of the household head. A household is willing to pay at least $4·86 or contribute 7·17 labor days per year, which amounts to $6·64 at per capita daily income. This suggests that using per capita daily income rather than market wage rates could result in convergence in response asymmetry of labor and cash payment vehicles. The potential local demand for conservation of BPF could be mobilized effectively with complementary policy interventions aimed at sustainable use and poverty reduction.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Tilahun, M., Vranken, L., Muys, B., Deckers, J., Gebregziabher, K., K. Gebrehiwot, K., Bauer, H., & Mathijs, E., 2013. Rural households' demand for frankincense forest conservation in Tigray, Ethiopia: A contingent valuation analysis. Land Degradation and Development. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ldr.2207/abstract

Case Study

Case study details

The Economics of Sustainable Land Management Practices in the Ethiopian Highlands

Study from: 1998 and 2001, published in 2010
Authors: M. Kassie, P. Zikhali, J. Pender and G. Köhlin
Location(s): Ethiopia (Amhara and Tigray regions)

Abstract:

This article uses data from household- and plot-level surveys conducted in the highlands of the Tigray and Amhara regions of Ethiopia. We examine the contribution of sustainable land management (SLM) practices to net value of agricultural production in areas with low vs. high agricultural potential. A combination of parametric and non-parametric estimation techniques is used to check result robustness. Both techniques consistently predict that minimum tillage (MT) is superior to commercial fertilizers (CFs), as are farmers’ traditional practices (FTPs) without CFs, in enhancing crop productivity in the low agricultural potential areas. In the high agricultural potential areas, by contrast, use of CFs is superior to both MT and FTPs without CFs. The results are found to be insensitive to hidden bias. Our findings imply a need for careful agro-ecological targeting when developing, promoting, and scaling up SLM practices.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Kassie, M., Zikhali, P., Pender, J., & Köhlin, G., 2010. The economics of sustainable land management practices in the Ethiopian Highlands. Journal of Agricultural Economics. 61(3): 605-627. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1477-9552.2010.00263.x/abstract;jsessionid=53B1FDC2777892CD2BB6B654D453A8BC.d01t02

Case Study

Case study details

The Role of Non Timber Forest Products to Rural Livelihoods and Forest Conservation: A Case Study at Harana Bulluk District Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia

Study from: based on data from 2007-2008, published in 2009
Authors: M.S. Feto
Location(s): Ethiopia (Harana Bulluk District, Oromia National Regional State)

Abstract:

Millions of people throughout the world make extensive use of goods and service of forest resources. Forest goods are either timber or non-timber. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are harvested for both subsistence and commercial use and play a key role in the livelihoods of millions of rural people. It has received increased policy and research attention due to its perceived potential to meet sustainable rural development and tropical forest conservation. In Ethiopia studies in different parts of the country have shown that many rural households depend on NTFPs for subsistence and cash income. Although wealth of literature are building on NTFPs of Ethiopia, still studies are far less than sufficient to cover the wide ecological and forest types found in the country. One of the ecological regions relatively less covered is the Bale region characterized by high diversity of plant and animal species, agro ecology and forest formations. This study, therefore, was conducted in the Harana Bulluk district of Bale Zone, with the main objective of assessing and analyzing the contribution of NTFPs to rural livelihood and to identify factors influencing household level of engagement in the business. Five villages were selected based on their proximity gradient from the forest. Formal survey was carried out on a total of 105 households (HHs) selected using stratified random sampling. The results indicate that local people practice diverse livelihood activities mainly crops cultivation (cereals and cash crops) and livestock husbandry, gather forest products and off-farm/off-forest activities for survival. The income from NTFPs accounted for about 35% of the total household annual income aggregated across wealth categories. The contribution of NTFPs varied with proximity and wealth status of households. Households close to the forest generate more income than do those at a distant location. The relative contribution of NTFP to household income of the poor was 37.7%, for the medium 35% and 33% for the rich households. This variation shows that in relative terms the poor rely more on NTFPs than the medium or rich, however, in absolute terms wealthy households extract greater income than poor and medium. Major constraints for improved NTFPs production were (i) shortage of labour, (ii) poor knowledge of managing and extracting NTFPs, (iii) poor market link, and (iv) low market prices. Currently, the study area forest is experiencing immense pressure, which is partly due to its nearness to open access condition. So to reverse this situation forestland title (tenure) should clearly be defined. The study has shown that NTFPs play a significant role in improving the livelihood of the people while conserving a forest. Rural development and future forest conservation strategies and interventions should pay attention to the contribution of NTFP to people’s livelihood and environmental sustainability

Full reference of the paper/report:

Feto, M.S., 2009. The role of non timber forest products to rural livelihoods and forest conservation: A case study at Harana Bulluk District Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia (M.Sc. Thesis). Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, Wondo Genet, Ethiopia.


Case studies in Portugal

Case Study

Case study details

Alqueva Multipurpose Project – EDIA & partners

Study from: ongoing, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): Portugal (Alentejo)

Abstract:

Alentejo is one of the most underdeveloped regions in Portugal and it has

severe desertification problems. In the Alqueva Multipurpose Project, managed

by EDIA and including several partners, a dam was built with the goal of fighting

desertification, ensuring water supply to people and industries in the region,

developing tourism and producing electricity.

Full reference of the paper/report:

EDIA, 2013. Alqueva Multipurpose Project Brochure.

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445


Case studies in Spain

Case Study

Case study details

An Assessment of the Non-market Values of Ecosystem Services Provided by the Catalan Coastal Zone, Spain

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: J. Brenner, J. A. Jimenez, R. Sarda and A. Garola
Location(s): Spain (Catalan)

Abstract:

A spatial value transfer analysis was performed to generate baseline estimates of the value of ecosystem services in the coastal zone of Catalonia, Spain. The study used the best available conceptual frameworks, data sources, and analytical techniques to generate non-market monetary value estimates that can be used to identify scarce ecosystem services among competing coastal uses. The approach focused on natural and seminatural, terrestrial and marine systems, which provide essential services that are not considered in current economic markets. Results show that in 2004 a substantial economic value of $3,195 million USD/yr was delivered to local citizens by surrounding ecosystems. In a spatially explicit manner, the approach illustrates the contribution made by natural environmental systems to the wellbeing of communities in the coastal zone of Catalonia. It is hoped that this study will highlight the need to consider these coastal systems in future management strategies to ensure their proper maintenance and conservation.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Brenner, J., Jimenez, J.A., Sarda, R., & Garola, A. 2010. An assessment of the non-market values of ecosystem services provided by the Catalan Coastal Zone, Spain. Ocean and Coastal Management. 53: 27–38. www.upc.edu/sostenible2015/menu3/Seminaris/Seminari_STD_10/docs/references/grup-1/An%20assessment%20of%20the%20non-market%20value%20of%20the%20ecosyste.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Costs of Land Degradation: a Case Study for the Puentes Catchment, Southeast Spain

Study from: 2003, published in 2007
Authors: L. Hein
Location(s): Spain (Puentes catchment, southeastern Spain)

Abstract:

Whereas many studies point out the economic benefits of controlling land degradation through sustainable land management (SLM) approaches, there is often a lack of local adoption of SLM techniques. Analysis of the local impacts and costs of land degradation is critical for understanding farmers' responses to land degradation. The objective of this paper is to analyse the local costs of land degradation in the Puentes catchment in southeast Spain. This catchment has been identified as particularly vulnerable to erosion, yet farmers show a general lack of interest in applying erosion control techniques. The paper subsequently analyses land degradation processes in the Puentes catchment, the income derived from agriculture and several other ecosystem services, and the local costs of land degradation. Erosion is widespread in the catchment, comprising sheet and rill erosion as well as gulley erosion. Relatively high erosion rates are encountered in cropland. The most important source of local income is irrigated agriculture, with revenues of up to €1350/ha?y?1. Dryland agriculture, hunting and herding provide additional income. The costs of erosion on cropland, calculated with a replacement method, vary from around €5/ha?y?1 on slopes between five?per cent and ten?per cent, to around €50/ha?y?1 on slopes between 30?per cent and 50?per cent. Except on the steepest slopes, these costs are relatively low for the farmers, which explains the limited application of erosion control techniques in the catchment.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Hein, L., 2007. Assessing the costs of land degradation: a case study for the Puentes catchment, southeast Spain. Land Degradation and Development.18(6): 631-642. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ldr.802/abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Cork Oak Forest Management in Spain and Tunisia: Two Case Studies of Conflicts between Sustainability and Private Income

Study from: 2007, published in 2007
Authors: P. Campos, H. Daly-Hassen and P. Ovando
Location(s): Spain (Cadiz) and Tunisia (Ain Snoussi)

Abstract:

Two management scenarios are simulated: a cork oak stand with regeneration treatments (sustainable scenario) and, a cork oak stand with no-regeneration treatment (unsustainable scenario), which leads the cork oaks to age until they eventually disappear. The aim of the paper is to compare the present value of income changes from the sustainable and unsustainable management scenarios in Cadiz (Spain) and Ain Snoussi (Tunisia), considering the multiple commercial uses and forest amenities enjoyed by private owners (only in Cadiz) of cork oak forests. The results show that the sustainable cork oak forest management in Ain Snoussi generates a higher present value of aggregated labour and capital incomes and leads to a capital loss when compared to the current cork oak depletion scenario. In addition, the sustainable scenario in Ain Snoussi would reduce the total self-employed income for households that depend on open-access grazing resources. In Cadiz, the cork oak forest sustainable management scenario leads to a significant capital loss for private forest owners given current cork prices and government aid to forest natural regeneration.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Campos, P., Daly-Hassen, H., & Ovando, P., 2007. Cork oak forest management in Spain and Tunisia: Two case studies of conflicts between sustainability and private income. International Forestry Review.9(2): 610-626. www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1505/ifor.9.2.610

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445

Case Study

Case study details

Protecting ecosystems while testing tyres: Michelin

Study from: 1987 - ongoing, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): Spain (Almeria, South Spain)

Abstract:

In order to ensure customer satisfaction and safety, Michelin evaluates the

performance of its products on test tracks in extreme conditions. One of the

tracks is located in the desert area, in Almeria, South Spain. To ensure the

testing conditions, Michelin helps to preserve the area. The project includes

restoring the area with e. g. green barriers on slopes, channeling pipes for

rainwater, plating trees and shrubs to stop desertification and reserving parts

of the area for nature conservation.

Full reference of the paper/report:

WBCSD, 2013. Michelin: Protecting Ecosystems while Testing Tires. www.wbcsd.org/Pages/EDocument/EDocumentDetails.aspx

Case Study

Case study details

Public Preferences for Landscape Features: The Case of Agricultural Landscape in Mountainous Mediterranean Areas

Study from: 2002, published in 2009
Authors: S. Sayadi, M. Carmen Gonzalez-Roa and J. Calatrava-Requena
Location(s): Spain (mountain area of the Alpujarras)

Abstract:

Provision of landscape amenities produced by farmers, in addition to their economic function of producing food and fibre, has contributed to a reassessment of the role of agriculture in society. In this paper, we examine whether agricultural landscape provision really responds to a social demand as is argued by those in favour of multifunctionality. Thus, the aim of the present work is two-fold. First, we evaluate rural landscape preferences of citizens from a range of choices in the mountain area of the Alpujarras (south-eastern Spain), and second, we estimate their willingness to pay (WTP) to enjoy each of the landscape characteristics existing in the area. For the empirical analysis, based on a survey of public preferences due to the good public characteristics of landscape amenities, we applied two stated preference methods: Conjoint Analysis (CA) and Contingent Valuation (CV). Three landscape attributes were considered for this analysis: type of vegetation layer, density of rural buildings, and level of slope. Several levels were also considered for each attribute: abandoned fields, dryland farming, irrigated farming, and natural lands were included for the vegetation layer; three levels (low, intermediate and intense) were considered for the level of slope and three levels (none, little and intense) for rural buildings. The empirical findings from the CA and CV confirm that the agricultural-landscape component (first irrigated lands, followed by dryland farming, within the attribute “vegetation layer”), plays an important role in public preferences on the landscape and WTP. Maintaining local agricultural activities, preventing future migration from agricultural lands, recovering abandoned fields, and including elements of rural landscape observation and appreciation of existing recreational programmes for rural tourism in the area, were among the strategies to take full advantage of this aesthetic landscape potential, and to foster sustainable development of the region.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Sayadi, S., González-Roa, M.C., & Calatrava-Requena, J., 2009. Public preferences for landscape features: The case of agricultural landscape in mountainous Mediterranean areas. Land Use Policy. 26(2): 334-344. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837708000586

Case Study

Case study details

Stakeholder Engagement Plan - Cantabrian Mountain Range

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Maren Wiese
Location(s): Spain

Abstract:

Building on the research taking place in the Cantabrian Mountain Range on the physiogeographic characteristics and environmental problems combined with the knowledge about our identified stakeholders, the different interests in land use and land management and the resulting conflicts, the main goal of our stakeholder engagement plan is the development of a future-orientated development of the entire region in agreement, interaction and collaboration of the individual stakeholders taking the policies of sustainability, nature conservation and green development into account.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Wiese, M. 2015. Stakeholder Engagement Plan - Cantabrian Mountain Range. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in Jordan

Case Study

Case study details

An economic valuation of a large-scale rangeland restoration project through in Jordan.

Study from: 2013, published in 2014
Authors: Vanja Westerberg and Moe Myint
Location(s): Jordan

Abstract:

Jordanian rangelands are a source of valued livestock produce, carbon storage, biodiversity and medicinal plants. They also serve as watersheds that receive rainfall, yield surface water, and replenish the groundwater throughout the region to the east and south of the western Jordan highlands. Appropriate land management can protect and maximize these services for society. With the acceleration of desertification, land degradation and drought during the twenty-first century in the arid and semi-arid regions of Jordan, these services are becoming jeopardized. It is therefore increasingly urgent to define and pursue viable strategies to reverse this trend. One such approach, which is gaining increasing attention in Jordan, is offered through the pre-Islamic ‘Al-Hima’ land management system. To inform the debate surrounding this approach, this paper presents an ex-ante Cost Benefit Analysis of large-scale rangeland rehabilitation through the Hima system within the Zarqa River Basin drawing on experience from a pilot initiative. The ecosystem services that arise from rangeland rehabilitation are valued using a combination of stated preference, avoided costs, replacement cost and market prices approaches. The economic analysis builds on high-resolution remote sensing, GIS and biophysical Soil and Water Assessment Tools elaborated to rigorously calibrate the impact of land use changes on forage availability, ground water infiltration, carbon sequestration and sediment stabilisation. We find that the benefits of large-scale rangeland rehabilitation from the Hima system outweigh the management and implementation costs at a discount rate of 8%. Given this encouraging result, we discuss the different policy instruments that may be used to incentivize the rehabilitation of rangelands in Jordan.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Myint, M.M., & Westerberg, V. (2014). An economic valuation of a large-scale rangeland restoration project through in Jordan. Report for the ELD Initiative by International Union for Conservation of Nature, Nairobi, Kenya. Available from: www.eld-initiative.org


Case studies in Mali

Case Study

Case study details

An economic valuation of agroforestry and land restoration in the Kelka Forest, Mali: Assessing the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of land degradation

Study from: 2013, published in 2014
Authors: Yoro Sidibé, Moe Myint, and Vanja Westerberg
Location(s): Mali

Abstract:

The Kelka forest in the Mopti region of Mali is important for the provision of ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and maintenance of the hydrological cycle. The Kelka forest area occupies more than 300, 000 hectares with 15 villages within and around its boundaries. The forest resources and soil fertility of the forest are in continuous decline due to a combination of climatic and human induced factors. For example, the availability of firewood has halved over the past 15 years due to a lack of adequate forest and land management.

 

Sustainable land management interventions that can reverse the current trend of forest and land degradation are increasingly necessary, but large scale interventions need to be grounded in solid assessments of their potential economic and financial value to the local and the global society. To address this need, the paper presents an ex-ante cost benefit analysis of large-scale agroforestry and reforestation in the Kelka forest to inform decision-makers about the value and importance of changing current land use practices. The economic valuation uses ‘productivity change’, ‘avoided cost’, ‘replacement cost’, and ‘market based’ valuation methods. The analysis is based on high-resolution remote sensing techniques, an explicit spatially distributed hydrological model, and a crop growth model, developed to assess the impact of land use change on firewood availability, soil moisture, carbon sequestration, and nitrogen fixation.

 

Using different discount rates, results indicate that the benefits of large-scale agroforestry and/or reforestation are significantly higher than the costs of implementing the restoration options over a 25 year time horizon. Different options for incentivizing agroforestry and restoration of the Kelka forest are discussed.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Sidibé, Y., Myint, M., & Westerberg, V. (2014). An economic valuation of agroforestry and land restoration in the Kelka Forest, Mali. Assessing the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of land degradation. Report for the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative, by International Union for Conservation of Nature, Nairobi, Kenya. Available from: www.eld-initiative.org

Case Study

Case study details

The On-Site Cost of Soil Erosion in Mali

Study from: 1989, based on data from 1981-1988, published in 1989
Authors: J. Bishop and J. Allen
Location(s): Mali (using data from Burkina Faso)

Abstract:

Land degradation in the Sahelian countries of West Farida is widely perceived as a critical threat to economic development. Some studies have quantified the extent of physical decline locally bit few have attempts to determine its economic impact. There is some evidence, however that current rates of depletion of Sahelian land resources may be excessive from an economic perspective, due to insecurity of land tenure and poorly developed capital markets.

This paper attempts to evaluate the gross on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali, a nation in which subsistence farming accounts for about one-fifth of national income. Mean local rates of soil erosion by rainfall are estimated and mapped using data derived from a land resources atlas of Mali and the Universal Soil Loss Equation. This analysis concerns only cultivated land within a north-south swath of Mali, comprising roughly one third of the country's most productive agricultural areas Average soil loss Is estimated at 6.5 tons/ha/yr, with higher losses occurring in the South (maximum 31 tons/he/yr).

Using a range of assumptions about the impact of erosion on crop yields, estimated rates of soil erosion on farm land imply average annual yield penalties in the study area between 24 and 104. These losses are expressed in terms of foregone net farm income, using farm budgets recorded in Burkina Faso.

Estimates of foregone farm income are compared to the costs of a relatively inexpensive soil conservation technology (rock contour bunds). Areas are identified where such investment may be justified as shown by a higher level of estimated farm income foregone.

The report suggests that economic returns to agriculture will be overstated by conventional benefit-cost analysis. On an annual basis, and ignoring possible price effects, current net farm income foregone nationwide due to soil erosion is estimated at US$4.6 to $18.7 million. However, soil erosion in one season affects crop yields in each subsequent year, until the land is fallowed. Under conservative assumptions of a ten-year time horizon and a 10% discount rate, the present value of current and future net farm income foregone nationwide, due to one year of average soil loss, is estimated at US$31 to $123 million (4% to 16% of agricultural GDP).

For most of Mali's agricultural land, there probably exist some cost-effective measures to reduce erosion losses. We must distinguish, however, between cost-effectiveness from a public and from a private perspective. If farmers do not already use basic soil conserving measures, it may be because they discount potential increased future yields at such a high rate that almost any present investment is uneconomic. This might be more effectively remedied by policy changes, such as formal recognition of indigenous land tenure system which would increase access to formal credit, or relaxation of constraints on informal credit.

Because of the uncertainty of the underlying calculations, any policy and program prescriptions based on this research must be tentative. The study is perhaps best considered as an illustration of a method of evaluation land degradation rather than as a definitive analysis with which to justify intervention. Hence the emphasis throughout is on methods of approximation and comparison.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Bishop, J., & Allen, J., 1989. The on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali. Environment Working Paper No. 21. The World Bank, Washington D.C. www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1989/11/01/000009265_3960928152005/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf


Case studies in Botswana

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of land degradation: A case study of Botswana’s Kalahari

Study from: 2013, published in 2014
Authors: Favretto, N., Stringer, L.C., Dougill, A.J., Perkins, J.S., Reed, M.S., Akanyang, L., Dallimer, M., Atlhopheng, J.R., Mulale, K.
Location(s): Botswana

Abstract:

This report identifies key rangeland ecosystem service benefits (food, fuel, construction material, ground water, genetic diversity, climate regulation, recreation and spiritual inspiration) in southern Botswana’s Kgalagadi District. It assesses the costs and trade-offs associated with ecosystem service delivery under: i) communal grazing, ii) private cattle ranching, iii) game ranching and in iv) Wildlife Management Areas. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the four alternative land use options according to their abilities to deliver different categories of ecosystem services (i.e. provisioning, regulating and cultural categories), encompassing use- and non-use values and based on policy preferences. Overall ranking of each land use is ascertained through a combination of scoring (derived from ecosystem service delivery, identified through the use of a variety of indicators) and weighting (derived from policy analysis) of a range of quantitative and qualitative criteria. Data used to inform the MCDA include semi-structured interviews with land users and policy makers, market price data analyses, ecological assessments and literature reviews.

 

Findings suggest that communal livestock grazing delivers the widest range of ecosystem services. High scores for this land use are mainly linked to the provision of commercial food production, wild food production, fuel, construction material, climate regulation and spiritual values. Wildlife Management Areas delivered the next widest range of ecosystem services, followed by private cattle ranches and private game ranches. Total annual economic values estimated for quantitative criteria highlight that climate regulation, ground water, and commercial food production offer the highest economic values compared to recreation. However, the sustainability implications of exploiting these services remain questionable.

 

While the policy analysis shows that a range of approaches and land uses are promoted by national policies and strategies through incentives and subsidies to enhance delivery of particular ecosystem services, the MCDA reveals that focus upon intensive commercial food production and ground water extraction compromises delivery of other provisioning ecosystem services (wild food, fuel, construction material and genetic diversity) and cultural services (recreation). As indicated by the literature review and interviews, these are important to people’s livelihoods, particularly in communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas. While cattle production in southern Botswana’s rangelands tends to provide the largest financial returns to private cattle ranchers, its negative environmental externalities affect all users of communal rangelands. Costs and benefits are not distributed fairly. Veld products, construction material and fuel wood remain undervalued due to a lack of markets, while access to these ecosystem services is negatively affected by policy support for fencing and borehole drilling. Wildlife conservation across Wildlife Management Areas is also hampered by fencing. Obstructed herd mobility results in declining wildlife numbers, limiting the capacity for livelihoods to adapt to climatic variations, decreasing the economic viability of community based natural resource management and ecotourism activities, and causing the poor to rely on short-term government support that fails to address the longer-term environmental problems.

 

Livelihood diversification is needed to enable multiple ecosystem services to be harnessed from Botswana’s rangelands and to support sustainable land management. Current policy approaches and incentives in the land and livestock sectors should be revised to better support communal livestock grazing, so that it delivers a broader range of ecosystem services. Creation of a market with commercial potential is needed so that the provisioning values of veld products are translated into wider economic benefits. However, whether such diversification could feasibly draw on climate regulation potential to include revenues from the trading of carbon credits remains unclear. This aspect requires further methodological refinement, as well as the development of safeguards, so that land degradation through the encroachment of woody species is not financially rewarding.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Favretto, N., Stringer, L.C., Dougill, A.J., Perkins, J.S., Reed, M.S., Akanyang, L., Dallimer, M., Atlhopheng, J.R., Mulale, K. (2014) Assessing the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of land degradation: A case study of Botswana’s Kalahari. Report for the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative. Leeds, UK, 28 pg [online]. Available from: www.see.leeds.ac.uk/research/sri/eld/

Case Study

Case study details

Changes in the Economic Use Value of Elephant in Botswana: The Effect of International Trade Prohibition

Study from: 1989-1992, published in 1996
Authors: J. Barnes
Location(s): Botswana

Abstract:

Analysis of the value of different potential combinations of elephant use in Botswana at various times since 1989 indicates that, with the 1990 CITES Appendix I listing, when international trade in elephant products was effectively banned, about half of potential, economic, use values were lost. Evidence suggests that the ban has helped slow the species' decline in many range states. But data from Botswana, where poaching levels have been low, indicate that most elephant range will be converted to livestock keeping in the next 15 years unless local communities can realise high elephant use values. The trade ban has jeopardised the future of the elephant in Botswana. The solution to elephant conservation involves investment in land and management, within appropriate property rights, for the existence of natural elephant populations. If the international community is serious about elephant conservation, it should actively assist African governments and local communities with funds and expertise for this. Total economic value should be maximised, including complementary combinations of non-consumptive and selected consumptive use values, as well as non-use values. African elephant values must contribute competitively to African rural development.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barnes, J., 1996. Changes in the economic use value of elephant in Botswana: the effect of international trade prohibition. Ecological Economics. 18(3): 215-230.

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Rhino Conservation in a Land-Use Context within the Region

Study from: 2005, published in 2005
Authors: A. Spenceley and J. Barnes
Location(s): South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Botswana and Zambia

Abstract:

In December 2004 IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa commissioned an economic analysis of rhino conservation in southern Africa. The aim of the analysis was to explore the rationale for regarding rhino as "flagship species" in terms of: The extent to which they might “add value" to existing wildlife operations in state and private areas; The extent to which their protection and monitoring needs might confer blanket protection for other wildlife components that might be vulnerable to human pressures (notably poaching, and including the converse possibility, that rhino may attract poachers into an area where other wildlife is then poached); The extent to they might contribute to community-based tourism and thereby to rural livelihoods, including comment on the opportunities for "direct incentives" payments to landholders or communities who ensure breeding opportunities for this species; The extent to which, in view of the above, they might be catalytic to land-use changes that entail a move towards wildlife production from alternative land-uses such as livestock production. Economic analyses were to concentrate on market values of relevant goods and services rather than non-use values, and to outline the issues and implications of consumptive uses of rhino within the SADC region. The analysis was essentially a pilot study that was designed to achieve an initial general insight into economic issues surrounding black and white rhino in southern Africa. Therefore rather than providing a comparative analysis between sites, or longitudinal evaluations, the study is largely descriptive for one or two case study sites within each part of the analysis. Where the availability of data has allowed, economic scenario analyses have been performed to generate realistic predictions for revenue generation in the future for enterprises and reserves that support rhino populations. In addition to presenting economic data regarding rhino around southern Africa, the discussion attempts to outline the issues and implications of consumptive and non-consumptive use of rhinos within the SADC region. The study considered whether rhino added value to wildlife operations in state and private areas by evaluating revenue generating activities and costs associated with rhino in South Africa and Namibia. The evaluation concluded that both black and white rhino provide a net benefit to both state and private protected areas through both consumptive and non-consumptive use. Considering the development of conservancies in Namibia and Zimbabwe, rhino have played a pivotal role in motivating land-use change. In Namibia the community-based natural resource management program embraces a major portion of all communal lands in the country, so that large areas are now allocated to wildlife uses, alongside livestock. In Zimbabwe financial benefits associated with the presence of rhino on private land catalysed the change in use from livestock to wildlife. A series of factors combined to bring about this change, which included an enabling political environment and legislation, support by WWF and appropriate financial assistance, the unsuitability of the habitat for livestock production and co-operation between neighbouring landowners. Both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of rhino have the potential to generate significant amounts of economic income and to contribute to the livelihoods of rural people. As land uses, they tend to be complementary and not mutually exclusive. This and other studies have shown that combinations of both non-consumptive and consumptive uses will generate maximum benefits. To provide the incentives needed for massive investment in rhino conservation, all possible uses should be explored for rhino.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Spencely, A., & Barnes, J., 2005. Economic analysis of rhino conservation in a land-use context region. SADC Regional Programme for Rhino Conservation. Harare, Zimbabwe. anna.spenceley.co.uk/files/Spenceley%20&%20Barnes.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445


Case studies in Cape Verde

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445


Case studies in Chile

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case Studies

Study from: 2003 (based on data from 1986-1999), published in 2003
Authors: L. Berry, J. Olson and D. Campbell
Location(s): China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile, Indonesia

Abstract:

This study, commissioned by the Global Mechanism with support from the World Bank examined available national data on the extent, costs and current remedial actions concerning land degradation and sustainable land management in seven pilot countries. This was a desk study, but included countries where the authors had detailed long term knowledge. The results of the work are presented in seven case studies of China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile and Indonesia; and this overview paper, which presents a synthesis of the lessons learned from the cases and from a review of the current academic and report literature.

Both encouraging and cautionary lessons can be drawn from this work. There are situations in the seven pilot countries and others cited in the literature, where sustainable and economic levels of productivity have been achieved under conditions of ongoing soil and water conservation. There are even stories of good application of low cost technologies. There are however other situations where poverty and land degradation appear to feed off each other in a downward spiral with the disruption of both farming and socio-economic systems.

In most cases the best available national assessments suggested that agricultural productivity is reduced by land degradation at a minimum rate of 3 to 7% and that investment in remedial action was an order of magnitude smaller than estimated costs. Governments were aware of the problem but responses especially in the past were typically top-down and directed to the on-site physical problems of soil and nutrient loss. On the other hand it is clear that policy issues can be critical factors in causing or reducing land degradation.

One of the concerns raised by the study was the incompleteness and inconsistency in the basic data on costs of land degradation and there is a case for a more comprehensive approach to this topic. However, information is sufficient to open up initial dialogues with respective governments on new approaches and increased investment in sustainable land management, targeting more integrated and holistic approaches and involving local and regional stakeholders in the activity at all stages.

One key recommendation suggests that the most efficient approach to mitigation would include a careful analysis of the policy framework most likely to facilitate mitigation through direct and indirect measures, capacity building and a focus on alternative livelihoods that would improve rural conditions and address poverty – degradation linkages.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Berry, L., Olson, J., & Campbell, D., 2003. Assessing the extent, cost and impact of land degradation at the national level: findings and lessons learned from seven pilot case studies. Global Mechanism. global-mechanism.org/edocman/download.php

Case Study

Case study details

Colliguay Local Engagement: Potential Regional – and National – Scale-Up

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Jennifer Schultz; Andreas Guenther; Annick Verstraelen; Miguel Ángel Gómez Rozo
Location(s): Chile

Abstract:

The study area is located in Central Chile with almost 8,5 million people, is home to nearly half of the Chilean population (INE-Chile 2014), mostly concentrated in the cities of Santiago, Valparaíso and Viña del Mar. The region is characterized by a semi-arid Mediterranean climate hosting mainly dry forests, shrub lands and high share of agricultural and pastoral areas. While the region is part of one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, the dry forests, which host high levels of biodiversity, are threatened by land use conversions, fire wood collection and extensive cattle grazing. The region contributes with an important share to Chile’s agricultural production, not only for national demand but also and especially for export products such as avocado, wine and juice production. Hence, in the recent decades forest cover - which has been historically reported to be the predominant land cover type - has been reduced to about 9% of the studied region, found mainly as remnants in the mountain ranges.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Schultz, J., Guenther, A., Verstraelen, A., Gómez Rozo, M. A. 2015. Colliguay Local Engagement: Potential Regional – and National – Scale-Up. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Cost-effectiveness of Dryland Forest Restoration Evaluated by Spatial Analysis of Ecosystem Services

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: J. C. Birch, A. C. Newtona, C. Alvarez Aquino, E. Cantarello, C. Echeverría, T. Kitzberger, I. Schiappacasse and N. T. Garavito
Location(s): Argentina, Mexico, and Chile (Nahuel Huapi, Río Negro/Neuquén (Argentina); El Tablon, Chiapas (Mexico); Central Veracruz (Mexico); and Quilpue Valparaíso region (Chile) )

Abstract:

Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Birch, J.C., Newton, A.C., Aquino, C.A., Cantarello, E., Echeverría, C., Kitzberger, T., Schiappacassee, I., & Tejedor Garavitoa, N., 2010. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.107(50): 21925-21930. www.pnas.org/content/107/50/21925.abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445


Case studies in China

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case Studies

Study from: 2003 (based on data from 1986-1999), published in 2003
Authors: L. Berry, J. Olson and D. Campbell
Location(s): China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile, Indonesia

Abstract:

This study, commissioned by the Global Mechanism with support from the World Bank examined available national data on the extent, costs and current remedial actions concerning land degradation and sustainable land management in seven pilot countries. This was a desk study, but included countries where the authors had detailed long term knowledge. The results of the work are presented in seven case studies of China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile and Indonesia; and this overview paper, which presents a synthesis of the lessons learned from the cases and from a review of the current academic and report literature.

Both encouraging and cautionary lessons can be drawn from this work. There are situations in the seven pilot countries and others cited in the literature, where sustainable and economic levels of productivity have been achieved under conditions of ongoing soil and water conservation. There are even stories of good application of low cost technologies. There are however other situations where poverty and land degradation appear to feed off each other in a downward spiral with the disruption of both farming and socio-economic systems.

In most cases the best available national assessments suggested that agricultural productivity is reduced by land degradation at a minimum rate of 3 to 7% and that investment in remedial action was an order of magnitude smaller than estimated costs. Governments were aware of the problem but responses especially in the past were typically top-down and directed to the on-site physical problems of soil and nutrient loss. On the other hand it is clear that policy issues can be critical factors in causing or reducing land degradation.

One of the concerns raised by the study was the incompleteness and inconsistency in the basic data on costs of land degradation and there is a case for a more comprehensive approach to this topic. However, information is sufficient to open up initial dialogues with respective governments on new approaches and increased investment in sustainable land management, targeting more integrated and holistic approaches and involving local and regional stakeholders in the activity at all stages.

One key recommendation suggests that the most efficient approach to mitigation would include a careful analysis of the policy framework most likely to facilitate mitigation through direct and indirect measures, capacity building and a focus on alternative livelihoods that would improve rural conditions and address poverty – degradation linkages.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Berry, L., Olson, J., & Campbell, D., 2003. Assessing the extent, cost and impact of land degradation at the national level: findings and lessons learned from seven pilot case studies. Global Mechanism. global-mechanism.org/edocman/download.php

Case Study

Case study details

Assessment Methodology and Technology of Biodiversity Economics Valuation

Study from: 2012-2014, published in 2012
Authors: L. Xiushan, L. Junsheng, M. Wei and S. Jianmin
Location(s): China ( Diebu county, Gansu province)

Abstract:

Valuation of 6 Forests ecosystem service: wood cumulation and nonwood product provision, CO2 storage, mud-rock flow disaster control, soil and water maintenance, Biodiversity maintenance; cultural valuation.

 

Wetland reserve cost-effective analysis; Five species valuation assessment: 2 medicinal plants, 1 Insect species, 1 half wild pig, 1 pheasant.

 

Methodology: including market price method, production cost method, etc., nonmarket valuation methodology: pay willing, choice modeling

Full reference of the paper/report:

Xiushan, L., Junsheng, L., Wei, M., & Jianmin, S., 2012. Exploring valuation of ecosystem service, gating new approach of biodiversity conservation. Environmental Protection. 17: 12-15. (In Chinese, the article could not be found by April 2013, web link not available)

Case Study

Case study details

Ecological Conservation, Cultural Preservation, and a Bridge between: The Journey of Shanshui Conservation Center in the Sanjiangyuan Region, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

Study from: 2012, published in 2012
Authors: X.Shen and J. Tan
Location(s): China (Sanjiangyuan, Qinghai province)

Abstract:

The Sanjiangyuan region is located on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in western China and encompasses the headwaters of the Yangtze, Yellow and Mekong rivers. It is also home to 300,000 Tibetan pastoralists. The area is characterized by its significant ecological service, unique culture, and fragile ecosystems, and has undergone a rapid degradation over the past several decades. Traditional Tibetan culture offers alternative knowledge and perspectives that facilitate the environmental conservation throughout the region, but have yet to be recognized or adopted by the Chinese government. Beginning in 2007, the local environmental NGO, Shanshui Conservation Center, has initiated a journey to bridge Tibetan communities with the outside scientific community, mainstream society and policy-makers with the aim of advocating integrating traditional Tibetan practices in conservation actions in the Sanjiangyuan region. Through the conservation concession program initiated and facilitated by Shanshui Conservation Center in collaboration with Conservation International, the Sanjiangyuan nature reserve turned over the management of some reserve lands to local communities after a conservation agreement with clear management plans and monitoring indicators was made between the two parties. The trial and demonstration of the conservation concession program successfully led to the adoption of community-based conservation models in state level conservation policy in 2011. We demonstrate as a bridging organization, Shanshui Conservation Center plays the role of cultural translator to promote the understanding and appreciation of traditional Tibetan culture in conservation in western China.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Shen, X., & Tan, J., 2012. Ecological conservation, cultural preservation, and a bridge between: the journey of Shanshui Conservation Center in the Sanjiangyuan region, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Ecology and Society. 17(4): 38. www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol17/iss4/art38/

Case Study

Case study details

Evaluation of Ecosystem Services Value and Design Mechanism of Ecological Compensation for Alpine Rangeland in the Northern Tibet, China

Study from: 2009-2012, published in 2011, 2012
Authors: Z. G. Guo and X. Y. Liu
Location(s): China (Northern Tibet)

Abstract:

The alpine rangeland degradation caused the ecological deterioration, low economic development, and poor living of herders, resulting in dilemma of sustainable development of the northern Tibetan region. Therefore, on the basis of evaluating ecological services value of rangeland, the effective compensation mechanism of rangeland was proposed to coordinate the relationships among population, resource environment and economic development.

Firstly, this study found that the out-of-balance gaming between ecological safety shelter zone and animal husbandry economy was the main external driver of alpine rangeland degradation because the alpine rangeland currently exceeded its maximum value of carrying capacity. The development potential, harmonious degree and the sustainable development degree of alpine rangeland ecosystem were very low. Consequently, alpine rangelands ecosystem in this region was unsustainable development situation.

Secondly, this study found that the ecological function, productive function and livelihood function of alpine rangeland was not linear internal relation, but was polybasic coupling, multidimensional linkage and multiple feedbacks. The per-capita income of well-to-do society and overcome-poverty life line for the herdsman proclaimed by China government in 2008 were considered as threshold to estimate the population carrying capacity of alpine rangelands in study region, the estimated results showed that the population carrying capacity of current alpine rangeland in well-to-do society and overcome-poverty life line decreased by 60% when compared to population carrying capacity of original rangeland. Based on the gross domestic product of animal husbandry of the Naqu region in 2008, the current population carrying capacity accounted for 96.3% of population carrying capacity in overcome-poverty life, but accounted for 489.2% of population carrying capacity in well-to-do society. The current population carrying capacity accounted for 14.2% and 85.9% of population in overcome-poverty life line and well-to-do society, respectively, when compared to population carrying capacity of original alpine rangeland. The current population carrying capacity accounted for accounted for 36% and 118.9% of estimated population carrying capacity in the overcome-poverty life line and well-to-do society in the Naqu region, respectively.

The 12 indicators with high contribution to ecological services function of alpine rangeland ecosystem were selected in this study to establish the index system and models for evaluate the ecological services value of alpine rangeland. The evaluation results indicated that the total annual ecological services value of alpine rangeland was 119.907 billion RMB. The loss of total annual ecological services value was 586.27 billion RMB due to alpine rangeland degradation in this region, which was 25.6 times of economic income from animal production in the original rangeland.

Fourthly, The alpine rangelands were classified into the production sector with moderate grazing, restoration sector with reducing livestock number, and conservation sector, and they accounted for 24%, 50%, and 26% of the total rangeland area, respectively. These function subarea was used to establish the mechanism of ecological compensation for alpine rangeland. The ecological compensation period was considered as 5 years and the total ecological compensation fund for alpine rangeland was 35.77 billion RMB, which was allocated for the moderate production sector with 19.4 billion RMB, restoring sector with15.77 billion RMB, and conservation sector with 0.6 billion RMB.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Liu, X.Y., & Guo, Z.G., 2011. Evaluation of ecosystem services value and design mechanism of ecological compensation for alpine rangeland in the north Tibet, China. Doctoral Thesis, Lanzhou University. (No information on whether it will be published in a journal, web link not available)

Case Study

Case study details

Grain to Green Evaluation Based on Farmer Household Technical Efficiency —The Case from Three Counties in Loess Plateau

Study from: 2008-2009, published in 2012
Authors: Z. Minjuan and Y. Shunbo
Location(s): China (Loess Plateau area: including, County of Wuqi and County of Dingbian, Shaanxi Province, County of Huachi, Gansu Province)

Abstract:

As the largest scope and expenditure environmental friendly policy in China, Grain to Green Program caused substantive, long-term and also complicated effects on environment and socioeconomics, especially on production activities of the end users — farm households. The goal for this study is to assess the extent to which technical efficiency (TE) is related to farm household production activities promoted by Grain to Green Program completed in different areas. Data for a total of 159 farmers in 2007 of Shannxi’s Wuqi County, of 152 of Shaanxi’s Dingbian County and of 125 in Gansu’s Huachi County are used to estimate a household-level input-oriented stochastic distance frontier simultaneously with a TE effects model. The main findings are that Grain to Green in Wuqi is positively associated with household TE. However, Grain to Green Program is negative impact in both Dingbian and Huachi. The results also reveal that: there are statistical significant associations between TE and household head’s age, between TE and household size, between TE and household head’s education in the three counties. The household production are constrained by labor, land, capital and fixed inputs. The average TE is around 80% that indicates farmers can reduce 20% inputs generally with the same outputs.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Minjuan, Z., & Shunbo, Y., 2012. Grain to green evaluation based on farmer household technical efficiency —The case from three counties in Loess Plateau. (No information on where it was published, web link not available)

Case Study

Case study details

Improving the Efficiency of Land Use Change in China. Final Report

Study from: 2009-2011, published in 2011
Authors: J. Bennett, X. Wang, D. Guaangcui, C. Xie, J. Xu, H. Zhang, H. Guo and M. Eigenraam.
Location(s): China (Sichuan province, southwest )

Abstract:

The efficiency of public environmental payment programs is a prominent policy issue not only for the Chinese Government but also for the Australian and other governments worldwide. This project aimed to investigate the potential of policy alternatives to help improve the efficiency of the various land use change policies that are currently financed by the Chinese Government, with a budget totalling CNY 700 billion (US$ 90.6 billion). The overall objective of the research was to provide a comprehensive analysis and understanding of whether the introduction of market-based instruments (MBIs) would improve the efficiency of the key land use change programs in China. Specifically, the feasibility of a bidding scheme for conservation contracts to allocate government ecological funds was explored in four case study villages of two counties in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. The case study trial results suggest that a bidding scheme under which farmers offer land use changes in return for a financial payment nominated by them can be both practically feasible and more economically efficient in China. The bidding scheme was found to be very well received by local farmers and most farmers indicate that they would participate in future bidding schemes. There is potential to increase the efficiency gains of government funding in ecological restoration through the introduction of a competitive bidding process. The bidding scheme was found to improve the environmental targeting of ecological restoration compared to the currently used fixed payment programs. A comparison between the bidding scheme and the fixed payment Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (CCFGP) revealed that the bidding scheme is 15 per cent more cost effective than the CCFGP. However, the magnitude of this cost saving potential of the bidding scheme is limited by the small geographical coverage of the pilot project due to the lack of heterogeneity across the land plots included in the bids. Findings of this project suggest that future bidding schemes could be conducted so that budget allocation occurs at the township or county level in order to increase the extent of efficiency gains from reduced transaction costs and greater level of heterogeneity. Long-term incentive structure needs to be built into the bidding schemes to ensure the sustainability of the provision of environmental goods and services. Further, institutional barriers especially at the local level need to be tackled in order for the bidding scheme to be implemented successfully. Lastly, more in-depth research relating to auction design and contract design need to be incorporated into future bidding schemes in China.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Bennett, J., Wang X., Guaangcui, D., Xie, C., Xu, J., Zhang, H., Guo, H. & Eigenraam, M., 2011. Improving the efficiency of land use change in China. Final Report. Australian Government. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. Canberra, Australia. aciar.gov.au/files/node/14534/fr2012_13_improving_the_efficiency_of_land_use_ch_14571.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

New Hope for Protecting Sanjiangyuan – Headwater of Yangtze, Yellow and Mekong Rivers (in Chinese)

Study from: Not available, published in 2013
Authors: S. Shan, Y. Hang, Z. Xiang, M. Haiyuan, H. Xin, H. Bing and L. Zhi
Location(s): China (Sanjiangyuan, Qinghai province)

Abstract:

China’s rapid economic development has been systematically encroaching on the country’s ecological bottom-line. In order to safeguard Sanjiangyuan – source water of Yangtze, Yellow and Mekong Rivers, also China’s second largest National Nature Reserve, we need solid science, respect and understanding of the mosaic highland rangeland-pasturing system, as well as culture and endemic knowledge on natural resource management. Experiments and practices at all levels are needed to provide solutions to the existing one-size-fits-all rangeland management policies aiming at reversing the trend of degradation. Such policies and vast investments often result to illusive conservation outcomes. November 2011, the “Sanjiangyuan National Ecological Comprehensive Experiment Zone” was approved by the State Council. With such principles as ‘respecting culture’, ‘protecting ecological environment’, ‘ensuring local livelihood benefits’, the Experiment Zone aims to encourage conservation rights and roles of the local nomads and villages, encouraging civil society participation, as well as innovating infrastructural changes. These top-down policy design, in combination with the various bottom-up community-based experiments on mobilizing and providing incentives for local people to act, are exhibiting new hope for Protecting Sanjiangyuan’s ecological environment. This article introduces natural and social background to Sanjiangyuan’s environment conservation, analyzes existing issues and previous policies and their ambiguous conservation outcomes. An outlook is provided on how best to maximize the opportunity provided by the new Experiment Zone, in light of the many civil society-led local practices to convert local protectors into ecosystem service providers and payment beneficiaries.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Shan, S., Hang, Y., Xiang, Z., Haiyuan, M., Xin, H., Bing, H., & Zhi L., 2013. New hope for protecting Sanjiangyuan – headwater of Yangtze, Yellow and Mekong Rivers (in Chinese, no information on where it was published, web link not available)

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445

Case Study

Case study details

Protect Forests for Drought Risk Reduction

Study from: 2010, published in 2012
Authors: F. Yang and W. Cheng
Location(s): China (Panying, Canyuan County, Yunnan, China Boji, Longyang district, Yunnan, China Lvchun County, Yunnan, China Zhongzai, Wenshan County, Yunnan, China Dazaizi, Jingdong County, Yunnan)

Abstract:

China’s rural villages are suffering from climate change and associated extreme weather. The lack of adaptation measures exposes rural villages to the negative impact of these changes. In the spring of year 2010, the mountainous areas of Southwest China were hit by extreme drought and millions of people suffered.

To establish a long-term mechanism for prevention of extreme weather phenomena, and in particular for combating drought, Shanshui Conservation Center has launched a “Protect Forests for Drought Risk Reduction” initiative. Shanshui Conservation Center has helped 5 drought-stricken communities located near nature reserves set up a facility to divert water from nature reserve to the local communities. Shanshui also helped the local communities reach agreements with local nature reserve authorities to protect the forest-watershed system. The project has demonstrated the value of the forest ecosystem services.

This report summarizes the pilot project and uses the cost benefit analysis method to evaluate the outcome of the pilot project. All the data comes from the survey collected in 2010 and 2011 respectively through the interview with different stakeholders.

It is concluded that the natural forest will playing important role to combat climate change and the crisis of water scarcity in Yunnan. The natural forest protection will be the cheapest approach to alleviate the drought risk. It also will have long term impact to development of local communities. The natural forest should be protected immediately but it is found that still large area of natural forests are still outside the nature reserves so that there is weak management for these forests.

Furthermore, due to the value of the forest ecosystem services is neglected by the policy makers and large area of natural forests is changing into monoculture plantation forest in Yunnan province. To halt this trend, further research priorities are recommended by the report:

- To monitor the change of the natural forest and projection its change with different policy scenario and analysis the impact to the economy.

- To use the economic method to evaluate the cost of the loss of natural forest and compare with the gain under current trend.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Yang, F., & Cheng, W., 2012. Protect forests for drought risk reduction. Shanshui Conservation Center, Beijing. www.shanshui.org/NewsLetter/project/water.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Study of Economic Loss Assessment of Forest Ecological Destruction in Hainan Province in China

Study from: 2007, published in 2007
Authors: Z. Ying, Y. Feng and X. Huijua
Location(s): China (Hainan province)

Abstract:

Based on summarization of ecological programming study and the economic loss of forest ecological damage evaluation study at home and broad in Hainan province in China, this paper points out that the area proportion of timber forest, protection forest, special purpose forest and bamboo forest should be adjusted from 68:22.9:7.1:1.8 to 24:72.8:2.5:0.6.At the same time, the average shadow price reasonably used for forestlands of different kind of forests is 2512.46 Yuan per hectare, and the optimal estimation price for special purpose forest is 4376.04 Yuan per hectare, which is not 6888.50 Yuan per hectare currently. Moreover, the results also show that the timber forest, special purpose forest and bamboo forest are short line products, namely means they can easily gain from forests, and that the protection forest, firewood forest, economic forest, sparse forest, the shrubbery, and the open land has afforested, as well as the open land are long line products which can not earning easily. Therefore, the short line products and the long line products should arrange reasonably, so as to maintain the various forest benefits in good conditions for a long time. Finally, the paper suggests that the area proportion of timber forest should be reduced, and the one of protection forest area should be increased. Simultaneity, the structure of forests should be adjusted attentively according to the needs of ecological construction in Hainan province. Also the structure of forest industry should be changed so as to make the single forest produce transfer to multi-forest products produce, further more, the advantage forest industry should be played more role, and the environment protection should be considered as the whole in ecological programming to promote the whole forest benefits optimal and forest sustainable development in Hainan province in China.

In addition, the study also shows that the loss in value of about 815 million yuan annually caused by the irrational structure of forest types in Hainan province. According to the 6th national forest inventory data in China, in 2005 because of the forest ecological damage caused the economic value loss about 769 million yuan, including soil nutrition material losses valued about 38,400 yuan, soil water conservation loss value of 32 million yuan, the loss value of carbon fixation and release oxygen about 94 million yuan, air purification capacity decreased caused the loss value about 66 million yuan, 576 million yuan loss of forest biodiversity, which must be highly attention in the future.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Ying, Z., 2007. The optimal forest ecological programming in Hainan Province. Forestry Economics. 176(03): 49-52. caod.oriprobe.com/articles/22928243/The_Optimal_Forest_Ecological_Programming_in_Hainan_Province.htm


Case studies in Greece

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445


Case studies in Morocco

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Development of Argan oil sourcing: L’Oréal, BASF and Yamana

Study from: 2008 - 2010, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): Morocco (Southern Morocco)

Abstract:

The Argan tree is endemic to southern Morocco, largely found on the Souss

plain bordering the Sahara desert. It acts as a natural barrier against the

advance of the desert, preventing erosion and protecting water resources. A

programme for the sustainable sourcing of Argan oil was set up to build a long

term relationship with the farmers, and to ensure the traceability and quality of

the raw material. The programme also sought to ensure long time production

through reducing desertification and soil erosion.

Full reference of the paper/report:

L’Oréal Canada, 2013. Responsible sourcing of argan Oil

Responsible sourcing of argan Oil. www.cbd.int/CBDLive/media/VideoGallery/documents_en/8-LOreal.pdf. L’Oréal, Cognis, & Yamana, 2013. A pioneering CSR tripartite

approach. www.cosmethica-grasse.com/assets/files/LSlOreaYamana.pdf.

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445

Case Study

Case study details

The case for a water pricing scheme in Ternata, in the Drâa Valley

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: Julian Andersen; Barbara Johnson; Adil Moumane
Location(s): Morocco

Abstract:

This report presents the results of a cost benefit analysis of managing water resources in the Ternata oasis in the Middle Drâa Valley through the establishment of surface water pricing scheme and the introduction of drip irrigation. Historically, at least part of the Drâa River flows all year round. Born from melting snow packs and the high levels of rainfall in the High Atlas Mountains, the river’s flow has decreased over the past 15 years as a result of the declining precipitation levels. Like in other arid regions, the agricultural production is dependent on irrigation, which is used to supplement rain fall in the Middle Drâa Valley. In this area, irrigation is extremely important as it mitigates the impact of variable rainfalls, helping decrease extreme fluctuations in production and prices. In the Middle Drâa Valley water for irrigation is obtained from the river’s flow, which is near continuous year round. However for the past few years, which have been very dry, people have increasingly relied on groundwater. A consequence of the overuse of groundwater resources is the resulting salinization of the land, combined with an increase in soil erosion. Both these factors are linked to an increase in poverty levels, and reduce the productivity of the land. This is very damaging for a community that relies on agricultural production for survival. Given time constraints, we decided to focus on only one of the six oasis of the Drâa Valley, with the intention for our results to be replicable in the other ones, as well as different arid regions. The chosen oasis, Ternata, is the largest oasis and located in the centre of the valley. This placement ensures that it is in the middle range with regards to water availability and water and soil salinization as a result of groundwater pumping.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Andersen, J., Johnson, B., Moumane, A. 2014. The case for a water pricing scheme in Ternata, in the Drâa Valley. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in Tunisia

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Cork Oak Forest Management in Spain and Tunisia: Two Case Studies of Conflicts between Sustainability and Private Income

Study from: 2007, published in 2007
Authors: P. Campos, H. Daly-Hassen and P. Ovando
Location(s): Spain (Cadiz) and Tunisia (Ain Snoussi)

Abstract:

Two management scenarios are simulated: a cork oak stand with regeneration treatments (sustainable scenario) and, a cork oak stand with no-regeneration treatment (unsustainable scenario), which leads the cork oaks to age until they eventually disappear. The aim of the paper is to compare the present value of income changes from the sustainable and unsustainable management scenarios in Cadiz (Spain) and Ain Snoussi (Tunisia), considering the multiple commercial uses and forest amenities enjoyed by private owners (only in Cadiz) of cork oak forests. The results show that the sustainable cork oak forest management in Ain Snoussi generates a higher present value of aggregated labour and capital incomes and leads to a capital loss when compared to the current cork oak depletion scenario. In addition, the sustainable scenario in Ain Snoussi would reduce the total self-employed income for households that depend on open-access grazing resources. In Cadiz, the cork oak forest sustainable management scenario leads to a significant capital loss for private forest owners given current cork prices and government aid to forest natural regeneration.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Campos, P., Daly-Hassen, H., & Ovando, P., 2007. Cork oak forest management in Spain and Tunisia: Two case studies of conflicts between sustainability and private income. International Forestry Review.9(2): 610-626. www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1505/ifor.9.2.610

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445

Case Study

Case study details

Patterns and Drivers of Land Use Change in Oum Zessar Watershed, Southern Tunisia: Consequence, Impacts and Management Options for Integrated Natural Resource Management

Study from: 2009-2011 (field work 2011), published in Not available
Authors: M. Sghaier, M. Ouessar, D. C. Catacutan, M. A. Abdeladhim, M. Briki and M. Gravador
Location(s): Tunisia (Oum Zessar watershed)

Abstract:

Anthropogenic activities and natural environmental conditions have strong influence on land use change, landscape transition and rural livelihoods. In this paper, poverty -environment nexus, human-ecological relations and land use change are analyzed. The analysis highlights the biophysical and socio-economic characteristics, issues and challenges, as well as opportunities for integrated natural resource management in Oum Zessar watershed in Medenine governorate in South East Tunisia. It looks into the patterns and drivers of land use change and their impacts on livelihoods, and reflects on potential management options for INRM.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Sghaier, M., Ouessar, M., Catacutan, D.C., Arbi Abdeladhim, M., Briki, M., & Gravador, M. Patterns and drivers of land use change in Oum Zessar watershed, Southern Tunisia: consequence, impacts and management options for integrated natural resource management. Institut des Régions Arides, Medenine, Tunisia. (No information on whether it will be published in a journal, web link not available)

Case Study

Case study details

Patterns of Vulnerability in the Agriculture and Water Sector in the Southern Region of Tunisia: Case of Olive Production Sector in the Governorate of Médenine

Study from: 2009-2010, published in 2010
Authors: M. Sghaier, M. Ouessar, A. Ouled Belgacem, H. Taamallah and H. Khatteli
Location(s): Tunisia (Médenine)

Abstract:

This document summarizes the methodological approach implemented and the final results related to the pilot case study of Tunisia within the framework of the study “Patterns of vulnerability in the agriculture and water sector in the southern region of Tunisia” as part of the project “Climate Impacts: Global and Regional Adaptation Support Platform” known as (CI:GRASP). This project is carried out by the Institute of the Arid Regions (Institut des Régions Arides – IRA) in collaboration with Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) (Potsdam, Germany), the German Technical Agency (GTZ) (Tunisia/Germany) and funded by the German Federal Ministry for Environmental Protection, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). It aims at providing a solid base of information on the stimuli of the climate, climatic impacts, the vulnerabilities, and adaptation capacities as a response of the society. The contents take into account the needs for the target groups (decision makers, institutions, NGOs). In the Tunisian context, a national strategy of adaptation of the agricultural sector to the CC was already elaborated. The objective of the project is to undertake a case study on models of vulnerability (prototypes) and impacts of the CC on the agriculture and the water sectors at the national level and in the areas of the southern region of Tunisia. At the national level, the study will analyze and exploit the already existing results of climatic projections and the recommendations for the adaptation to the CC of the agriculture and the water sector in order to identify the models mentioned of vulnerability. The overall results of the case study will be used as input to Ci: GRASP project.

 

This program aims at conducting a case study on patterns of vulnerability (archetypes) and impacts of climate change on the agricultural and water sector in the Southern region of Tunisia. At national level the case study will analyse and make use of the already existing results of the climate projections and recommendations for adaptation in the agricultural and water sector in order to identify the mentioned patterns of vulnerability. Those patterns will be specified and detailed, according the specific situation in the Southern region. The overall results of the case study will serve as input to the ci:grasp project. In the Southern region of Tunisia these patterns will be “ground truthed” / validated and enriched through concrete and specific characteristics of the region and by integrating multi-dimensional impact studies.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Sghaier, M., Ouessar, M., Ouled Belgacem, A., Taamallah, H., & Khatteli, H., 2010. Patterns of vulnerability in the agriculture and water sector in the southern region of Tunisia: Case of olive production sector in the governorate of Médenine. Final report to the Climate Impacts: Global and Regional Adaptation Support Platform (CI:GRASP) project. (Web link not available)

Case Study

Case study details

Using Payments for Environmental Services to Improve Conservation in a Tunisian Watershed

Study from: 2009, published in 2010
Authors: L. Croitoru and H. Daly-Hassen
Location(s): Tunisia (Barbara watershed)

Abstract:

Governments have often attempted to protect downstream water infrastructure by providing short-term subsidies for the adoption of conservation practices or low-erosion land uses. However, these efforts have often yielded disappointing results, with farmers either declining to adopt the recommended practices, or only adopting them temporarily (Pagiola 1999). The Payment for Environmental Services (PES) approach promises to provide a more effective and more sustainable system for inducing farmers to adopt conservation measures (Pagiola and Platais 2007). In this paper we examine current conservation subsidy policies in a Tunisian watershed, and discuss how they might be modified to incorporate PES principles so as to improve their effectiveness.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Croitoru, L., & Daly-Hassen, H., 2010. Using payments for environmental services to improve conservation in a Tunisian watershed. Mountain Forum Bulletin. 10(1) :89-91. www.researchgate.net/publication/234015687_Using_Payments_for_Environmental_services_to_Improve_Conservation_in_a_Tunisian_Watershed

 


Case studies in Turkey

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445


Case studies in Australia

Case Study

Case study details

An Overview of Cultural and Spiritual Values in Ecosystem Management and Conservation Strategies

Study from: 2006, published in 2006
Authors: Bas Verschuuren
Location(s): Australia

Abstract:

Cultural and spiritual values are critical driving forces in nature conservation and ecosystem management but are often difficult to represent in decision-making processes. The cultural importance of natural ecosystems not only consists of tangible goods and services, but also includes many often intangible, non-material or information services. These non-material and spiritual values are part of local people's cosmovision and play a pivotal role in shaping their perception of nature. The way people perceive nature depends on cultural defined value and belief systems that form an important, often intergenerational, source of information. Some of this valuable information relating in particular to its spiritual dimensions, may not yet be considered in current ecosystem management. Part of the reason for this may be that such knowledge is inaccessible and difficult to be understood by outsiders such as western-trained conservationists and conventional ecosystem managers. Hence, accounting for the various worldviews and their corresponding cultural and spiritual values in the practice of ecosystem management forms a challenge for managers, policy-makers and local people alike. This chapter investigates opportunities for the integration of cultural and spiritual values in conservation and ecosystem management. Special but limited attention is given to the role of perception-based indicators in monitoring and assessment strategies in the management of sacred natural sites . In addition, this chapter is illustrated with examples from northern Australia where I had personal experience in understanding various dimensions, cultural values and sacred natural sites in the field. Ultimately, this chapter aims to contribute to growing body of knowledge on the importance of difference cultural perceptions of natural ecosystems and landscapes for the development and strengthening of more effective and holistic services for ecosystem management and coexistence of simultaneous realities.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Verschuuren, B., 2006. An overview of cultural and spiritual values in ecosystem management and conservation strategies. Presented at: the International Conference on Endogenous Development and Biocultural Diversity. October 2006, Geneva, Switzerland. www.academia.edu/5969969/An_overview_of_cultural_and_spiritual_values_in_ecosystem_management_and_conservation_strategies_An_overview_of_cultural_and_spiritual_values_in_ecosystem_management_and_conservation_strategies

Case Study

Case study details

Comparing Spatially Explicit Ecological and Social Values for Natural Areas to Identify Effective Conservation Strategies

Study from: 2009, published in 2010
Authors: B.A. Bryan, C.M Raymond, N.D. Crossman and D. King
Location(s): Australia (Southern Australia, Murray-Darling basin)

Abstract:

Consideration of the social values people assign to relatively undisturbed native ecosystems is critical for the success of science-based conservation plans. We used an interview process to identify and map social values assigned to 31 ecosystem services provided by natural areas in an agricultural landscape in southern Australia. We then modeled the spatial distribution of 12 components of ecological value commonly used in setting spatial conservation priorities. We used the analytical hierarchy process to weight these components and used multiattribute utility theory to combine them into a single spatial layer of ecological value. Social values assigned to natural areas were negatively correlated with ecological values overall, but were positively correlated with some components of ecological value. In terms of the spatial distribution of values, people valued protected areas, whereas those natural areas underrepresented in the reserve system were of higher ecological value. The habitats of threatened animal species were assigned both high ecological value and high social value. Only small areas were assigned both high ecological value and high social value in the study area, whereas large areas of high ecological value were of low social value, and vice versa. We used the assigned ecological and social values to identify different conservation strategies (e.g., information sharing, community engagement, incentive payments) that may be effective for specific areas. We suggest that consideration of both ecological and social values in selection of conservation strategies can enhance the success of science-based conservation planning.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Bryan, B.A., Raymond, C.M., Crossman, N.D., & King, D., 2010. Comparing spatially explicit ecological and social values for natural areas to identify effective conservation strategies. Conservation Biology. 25(1): 172–181. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01560.x/pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Exploring the Cost Effectiveness of Land Conservation Auctions and Payment Policies

Study from: 2005-2008, published in 2008
Authors: J. Connor, J. Ward and B. Bryan
Location(s): Australia (Onkaparinga catchment in South Australia)

Abstract:

This article evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the Catchment Care Australian conservation auction. It provides evidence of auction cost effectiveness, and estimates cost savings from two discrete components: (i) the opportunity cost revelation incentive provided by the auction mechanism, and (ii) the improved environmental targeting capacity that results from development of a scientifically based environmental benefits assessment capacity. Results show that there are potentially very large returns associated with the latter component that have been overlooked in the literature. Additionally, transaction costs involved with administering the case study conservation auction and the prior non-auction payment policy are compared. We find that the administration costs for the auction were greater than or equal to those associated with the prior policy. Estimates of relative cost effectiveness across policies are shown to be sensitive to the methods of comparison. In this case study, there is inelastic supply of the last units of environmental benefit. This inelasticity results in large estimated auction comparative cost advantage when the benefit metric is the estimated cost required to achieve auction aggregate environmental benefit. Estimated benefit of the auction is much less when measured as environmental benefits attainable with alternative payment policies subject to the auction budget constraint.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Connor, J., Ward, J., & Bryan, B., 2008. Exploring the cost effectiveness of land conservation auctions and payment policies. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 51(3): 303-319. ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/118545/2/j.1467-8489.2007.00417.x.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Influence of Soil Conservation on Farm Land Values

Study from: 1988, published in 1988
Authors: D. A. King and J. A. Sinden
Location(s): Australia (Manilla Shire, New South Wales)

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationships between land condition, expressed as the status of on farm soil conservation works, and farm land value. To accomplish this purpose, the hedonic approach was applied to an Australian farm land market. Our objectives were to determine whether and by how much changes in land condition affect land prices and to explore whether the benefits of land improvement exceed the costs of land improvement.

Full reference of the paper/report:

King, D.A., & Sinden, J.A., 1988. Influence of soil conservation on farm land values. Land Economics. 64(3): 242-255. www.jstor.org/stable/3146248

Case Study

Case study details

Reconfiguring an Irrigation Landscape to Improve Provision of Ecosystem Services

Study from: 2009, published in 2010
Authors: N. D. Crossman, J. D. Connor, B.A. Bryan, D. M. Summers and J. Ginnivan
Location(s): Australia (Torrumbarry Irrigation Area in northern Victoria, part of the Murray Darling Basin)

Abstract:

Over-allocation of fresh water resources to consumptive uses, coupled with recurring drought and the prospect of climate change, is compromising the stocks of natural capital in the world's basins and reducing their ability to provide water-dependent ecosystem services. To combat this, governments worldwide are making significant investment in efforts to improve the sharing of water between consumptive uses and the environment. Many investments are centred on the modernisation of inefficient irrigation delivery systems and the purchase of consumptive water for environmental flows. In this study, we applied spatial targeting within a cost–benefit framework to reconfigure agricultural land use in an irrigation district to achieve a 20% reduction in agricultural water use to increase environmental flows, and improve the provision of other ecosystem services. We demonstrate a targeted land use reconfiguration policy approach using spatial planning and optimisation models. Our model estimates a potential increase in the net present value of ecosystem services of up to $AUS 347 million. The increase in ecosystem services include recovering 62 GL of water for environmental flows, the sequestration of 10.6 million tonnes of CO2e/year, a 12 EC (?S/cm) reduction in river salinity, and an overall 9% increase in the value of agriculture. Without a spatially targeted approach to planning, a 20% reduction in water for irrigation could result in the loss of $AUS 68.7 million in economic returns to agriculture which may be only marginally offset by the increased value of ecosystem services resulting from the return of 62 GL of water to the environment.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Crossman, N.D., Connor, J.D., Bryan, B.A., Summers, D.M., & Ginnivan, J., 2010. Reconfiguring an irrigation landscape to improve provision of ecosystem services. Ecological Economics. 69(5): 1031-1042. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800909004698

Case Study

Case study details

Valuing Reductions in Water Extractions from Groundwater Basins with Benefit Transfer: The Great Artesian Basin

Study from: 2009, published in 2010
Authors: J. Rolfe
Location(s): Australia (Great Artesian Basin)

Abstract:

The management of groundwater to generate net community benefits is challenging because of the complexity of impacts that can be involved, the varying interests of different stakeholder groups, time lags between changes in extraction rates and aquifer levels, and the level of technical and scientific uncertainty. In an economic framework, decisions about conserving groundwater reserves by limiting extraction rates should be made by comparing the benefits of conservation activities with the associated costs. However, limited information about benefits and costs makes it difficult to apply a benefit?cost framework to issues of groundwater management. This can be addressed to some extent by sourcing nonmarket values from other studies in a benefit transfer process. In this paper, benefit transfer techniques are applied to an evaluation case study about limiting extractions from the Great Artesian Basin in Australia. The results demonstrate some of the issues with the benefit transfer approach and confirm that the publicly funded bore capping program in Australia has been delivering net benefits to the community.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Rolfe, J. 2010. Valuing reductions in water extractions from groundwater basins with benefit transfer: The Great Artesian Basin in Australia. Water Resources Research. 46(6): W06301. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2009WR008458/pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Valuing Remnant Vegetation in Central Queensland Using Choice Modelling

Study from: 2000, published in 2000
Authors: R. Blamey, J. Rolfe, J. Bennett and M. Morrison
Location(s): Australia (Desert Uplands region)

Abstract:

In the Desert Uplands region of Central Queensland, many pastoralists are clearing vegetation in order to improve cattle grazing production. A choice modelling study was undertaken to provide estimates of the benefits of retaining remnant vegetation that are appropriate for inclusion in a cost benefit analysis of tighter clearing restrictions. Attributes included in the choice model were reductions in the population size of non-threatened species, the number of endangered species lost to the region, and changes in regional income and employment. A nested logit model was used to model the data in order to avoid violations of the independence of irrelevant alternatives condition. The estimated benefits are reported for several tree clearing policy regimes that are more stringent than those currently applied.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Blamey, J., Rolfe, J., Bennett, J., & Morrison M., 2000. Valuing remnant vegetation in Central Queensland using choice modelling. The Australian Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics. 44(3): 439-456. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8489.00119/pdf


Case studies in Uganda

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case Studies

Study from: 2003 (based on data from 1986-1999), published in 2003
Authors: L. Berry, J. Olson and D. Campbell
Location(s): China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile, Indonesia

Abstract:

This study, commissioned by the Global Mechanism with support from the World Bank examined available national data on the extent, costs and current remedial actions concerning land degradation and sustainable land management in seven pilot countries. This was a desk study, but included countries where the authors had detailed long term knowledge. The results of the work are presented in seven case studies of China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile and Indonesia; and this overview paper, which presents a synthesis of the lessons learned from the cases and from a review of the current academic and report literature.

Both encouraging and cautionary lessons can be drawn from this work. There are situations in the seven pilot countries and others cited in the literature, where sustainable and economic levels of productivity have been achieved under conditions of ongoing soil and water conservation. There are even stories of good application of low cost technologies. There are however other situations where poverty and land degradation appear to feed off each other in a downward spiral with the disruption of both farming and socio-economic systems.

In most cases the best available national assessments suggested that agricultural productivity is reduced by land degradation at a minimum rate of 3 to 7% and that investment in remedial action was an order of magnitude smaller than estimated costs. Governments were aware of the problem but responses especially in the past were typically top-down and directed to the on-site physical problems of soil and nutrient loss. On the other hand it is clear that policy issues can be critical factors in causing or reducing land degradation.

One of the concerns raised by the study was the incompleteness and inconsistency in the basic data on costs of land degradation and there is a case for a more comprehensive approach to this topic. However, information is sufficient to open up initial dialogues with respective governments on new approaches and increased investment in sustainable land management, targeting more integrated and holistic approaches and involving local and regional stakeholders in the activity at all stages.

One key recommendation suggests that the most efficient approach to mitigation would include a careful analysis of the policy framework most likely to facilitate mitigation through direct and indirect measures, capacity building and a focus on alternative livelihoods that would improve rural conditions and address poverty – degradation linkages.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Berry, L., Olson, J., & Campbell, D., 2003. Assessing the extent, cost and impact of land degradation at the national level: findings and lessons learned from seven pilot case studies. Global Mechanism. global-mechanism.org/edocman/download.php

Case Study

Case study details

Bwindi Park - Cost-Benefit Analysis

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: Clemens Felix Olbrich; Daniel Gebeyehu Gebretsadik; Gertrude Ngabirano; Levaka Surrya Narayana Reddy; Louisa Lösing; Paul Bwalya; Silvana del Carmen Builes Gaitán
Location(s): Uganda

Abstract:

Cost-befit analysis was done by comparing the costs of undertaking actions of alternative project that develop the land and improve the livelihoods of the neighboring community.

In the previous assignment the team had proposed an alternative scenario with the following justification.

Both the Batwa and the none-Batwa communities will co-exist with Bwindi national park in harmony because of the reclassification of the land use system

Batwa community involve in activities that will not harm the park while they produce agroforestry crops. Another block is proposed for tea plantation to serve as a buffer between the natural forests and large cultivated areas around it by discouraging wildlife from crossing between them at the same time delivering economic benefit to the surrounding community .

 

Full reference of the paper/report:

Olbrich, C. F., Gebeyehu Gebretsadik, D., Ngabirano, G., Narayana Reddy, L. S., Lösing, L., Bwalya, P., Builes Gaitán, S. 2014. Bwindi Park - Cost-Benefit Analysis. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Harnessing Pastoralists; Indigenous Knowledge for Rangeland Management: Three African Case Studies

Study from: 2012, published in 2012
Authors: G. Oba
Location(s): Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda

Abstract:

This article reports a rapid method for rangeland assessments in Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda by harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous knowledge among the Orma, Afar and Karamojong pastoralists. The study developed and evaluated a methodological framework for conducting joint assessments with pastoralist range scouts. The framework has four components: selection of ecological and anthropogenic indicators, indicator integration, evaluation of indicator outcomes and regional decision-making systems. The feedbacks between different components were used for information transfer. The framework was applied to the three case studies (using participatory methods). The scouts conducted rangeland assessments using ecological and anthropogenic indicators. Soils, and then vegetation, and finally livestock production were used as the main indicators for understanding rangeland degradation. In addition, pastoralists used key-plant species to assess landscape grazing suitability and soils to assess landscape-grazing potential. The latter is critical for evaluating potential stocking densities that each landscape could support during the wet or dry grazing seasons. For anthropogenic indicators herders used milk yield, body hair condition, weight gain and mating frequency to assess livestock production performances. Pastoralist scouts assessed rangeland degradation and trends using historical knowledge of the landscapes. The findings confirmed comparable knowledge systems among the three pastoral communities. The methods can be applied across regions where pastoralism still dominates the rural economy. The system of indigenous rangeland assessments and monitoring could rapidly provide information needed by policy makers. Harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous rangeland knowledge has implications for participatory research, for verifying and testing methods, as well as for sharing information in order to promote practical rangeland management.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Oba, G., 2012. Harnessing pastoralists' indigenous knowledge for rangeland management: Three African case studies. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2:1. www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/pdf/2041-7136-2-1.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Review of the Literature on Pastoral Economics and Marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganada, and Sudan

Study from: 2006, published in 2006
Authors: M. Odhiambo
Location(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan

Abstract:

This is a report to the World Initiative on Sustainable Pastoralism within the framework of its Economics of Pastoralism consultancy, which seeks to collate and document information on economic valuations of pastoralism in the East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, as well as Sudan. We were however not able to gather much data and information about Sudan, with the result that the report is mainly concentrated on the three East African countries. The report confirms the paucity of data about the value of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies, not because that contribution is lacking, but mainly because the analytical framework of these economies does not permit its full appreciation. Even where efforts have been made to collect data, this has been limited to data on livestock and livestock products such as milk, hides and skins sold at national markets. Non-monetised contributions such as manure, draught power, control of bush and weeds, recycling of household waste are not captured or acknowledged. Nor is the contribution that pastoralism makes to the conservation and wildlife-based tourism. At the heart of this inadequate appreciation of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies is a pervasive misperception of pastoralism and pastoralists across the region. Despite the fact that pastoralism is one of the most researched livelihood systems in the world, and that it continues to hold an abiding enchantment especially to Western researchers even today, the perception of pastoralism within policy circles in the region remains clouded by stereotypes and myths. Many think of pastoralism, not as a livelihood system but as a stage in the transition of society from backwardness to modernization. Pastoralists, and in particular, nomadic pastoralists are thus seen as holding on to a livelihood system and practices that are not appropriate to current imperatives of social, cultural and economic change. These perceptions exist at the highest levels of government, and inform and define the type of interventions that governments have for years implemented in pastoral areas, with a view to transforming pastoralism and pastoralists and bringing them to the levels of modernity. These interventions have invariably targeted the livestock component of pastoralism, and sought to transform pastoralists “from being nomadic cattle herders to being settled modern livestock keepers”. It is not surprising that these interventions have invariably failed. They are founded on a poor understanding of the rationale of pastoral livelihood practices and land use. They are topdown and inspired by a desire to civilize pastoralists. Worse still, the interventions are premised on a perception of pastoralists as irrational and pastoralism itself as a problem, associating it with environmental degradation, conflict, and resistance to change. They are informed by the generalization that pastoralism “is constrained by poor animal husbandry, lack of modernization, accumulation of stock beyond carrying capacity and lack of market orientation…”. This study is based on a desk review of published material that we were able to unearth in libraries and on the Internet. We have already alluded to the fact that we were unable to obtain much on Sudan. However, even with respect to the other three countries, there are substantial information gaps in so far as the economics of pastoralism is concerned.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Odhiambo, M., 2006. Review of the literature on pastoral economics and marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and the Sudan. Report prepared for the World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism, IUCN EARO RECONCILE, Kenya. cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/eastern_africa_reports.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

The Lake Victoria Ecosystem: A deeper look into its true worth

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: Benson Rwegoshora Bashange; Chanoine Marie; Franz Vockinger; Janek Toepper; Leah-Rehema Murerwa; Rose Anarfiwaah Oppong; Yacoubou Kadade
Location(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

Abstract:

Full reference of the paper/report:

Rwegoshora Bashange, B., Chanoine, M., Vockinger, F., Toepper, J., Murerwa, L.R., Anarfiwaah Oppong, R., Kadade, Y. 2014. The Lake Victoria Ecosystem: A deeper look into its true worth. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in Rwanda

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case Studies

Study from: 2003 (based on data from 1986-1999), published in 2003
Authors: L. Berry, J. Olson and D. Campbell
Location(s): China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile, Indonesia

Abstract:

This study, commissioned by the Global Mechanism with support from the World Bank examined available national data on the extent, costs and current remedial actions concerning land degradation and sustainable land management in seven pilot countries. This was a desk study, but included countries where the authors had detailed long term knowledge. The results of the work are presented in seven case studies of China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile and Indonesia; and this overview paper, which presents a synthesis of the lessons learned from the cases and from a review of the current academic and report literature.

Both encouraging and cautionary lessons can be drawn from this work. There are situations in the seven pilot countries and others cited in the literature, where sustainable and economic levels of productivity have been achieved under conditions of ongoing soil and water conservation. There are even stories of good application of low cost technologies. There are however other situations where poverty and land degradation appear to feed off each other in a downward spiral with the disruption of both farming and socio-economic systems.

In most cases the best available national assessments suggested that agricultural productivity is reduced by land degradation at a minimum rate of 3 to 7% and that investment in remedial action was an order of magnitude smaller than estimated costs. Governments were aware of the problem but responses especially in the past were typically top-down and directed to the on-site physical problems of soil and nutrient loss. On the other hand it is clear that policy issues can be critical factors in causing or reducing land degradation.

One of the concerns raised by the study was the incompleteness and inconsistency in the basic data on costs of land degradation and there is a case for a more comprehensive approach to this topic. However, information is sufficient to open up initial dialogues with respective governments on new approaches and increased investment in sustainable land management, targeting more integrated and holistic approaches and involving local and regional stakeholders in the activity at all stages.

One key recommendation suggests that the most efficient approach to mitigation would include a careful analysis of the policy framework most likely to facilitate mitigation through direct and indirect measures, capacity building and a focus on alternative livelihoods that would improve rural conditions and address poverty – degradation linkages.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Berry, L., Olson, J., & Campbell, D., 2003. Assessing the extent, cost and impact of land degradation at the national level: findings and lessons learned from seven pilot case studies. Global Mechanism. global-mechanism.org/edocman/download.php


Case studies in Indonesia

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case Studies

Study from: 2003 (based on data from 1986-1999), published in 2003
Authors: L. Berry, J. Olson and D. Campbell
Location(s): China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile, Indonesia

Abstract:

This study, commissioned by the Global Mechanism with support from the World Bank examined available national data on the extent, costs and current remedial actions concerning land degradation and sustainable land management in seven pilot countries. This was a desk study, but included countries where the authors had detailed long term knowledge. The results of the work are presented in seven case studies of China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile and Indonesia; and this overview paper, which presents a synthesis of the lessons learned from the cases and from a review of the current academic and report literature.

Both encouraging and cautionary lessons can be drawn from this work. There are situations in the seven pilot countries and others cited in the literature, where sustainable and economic levels of productivity have been achieved under conditions of ongoing soil and water conservation. There are even stories of good application of low cost technologies. There are however other situations where poverty and land degradation appear to feed off each other in a downward spiral with the disruption of both farming and socio-economic systems.

In most cases the best available national assessments suggested that agricultural productivity is reduced by land degradation at a minimum rate of 3 to 7% and that investment in remedial action was an order of magnitude smaller than estimated costs. Governments were aware of the problem but responses especially in the past were typically top-down and directed to the on-site physical problems of soil and nutrient loss. On the other hand it is clear that policy issues can be critical factors in causing or reducing land degradation.

One of the concerns raised by the study was the incompleteness and inconsistency in the basic data on costs of land degradation and there is a case for a more comprehensive approach to this topic. However, information is sufficient to open up initial dialogues with respective governments on new approaches and increased investment in sustainable land management, targeting more integrated and holistic approaches and involving local and regional stakeholders in the activity at all stages.

One key recommendation suggests that the most efficient approach to mitigation would include a careful analysis of the policy framework most likely to facilitate mitigation through direct and indirect measures, capacity building and a focus on alternative livelihoods that would improve rural conditions and address poverty – degradation linkages.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Berry, L., Olson, J., & Campbell, D., 2003. Assessing the extent, cost and impact of land degradation at the national level: findings and lessons learned from seven pilot case studies. Global Mechanism. global-mechanism.org/edocman/download.php

Case Study

Case study details

Can Rewards for Environmental Services Benefit the Poor? Lessons from Asia

Study from: 2002-2007, published in 2009
Authors: B. Leimona, L. Joshi and M. Noordwijk
Location(s): Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines, Nepal)

Abstract:

Pro-poor rewards for environmental services (RES) link global priorities on poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Emerging approaches to payment for environmental services vary in mechanism and form of payment. Rural poverty is multidimensional and the poverty syndromes vary with the intensity of landscape use and management, with the solution to lack of access to markets, education and healthcare associated with loss of natural capital. RES mechanisms have to balance effectiveness and efficiency with fairness and pro-poor characteristics, with transaction costs as obstacles to both. The economic perspective on financial transfers needs to be balanced with the social and environmental paradigms of fairness. Our first hypothesis is that only under specific circumstances, actual cash incentive to individual participants of RES will contribute substantially to poverty alleviation of ES providers. The second hypothesis is that non-financial incentive to ES providers will contribute to reducing poverty by linking the community (participants and non-participants) to access to capital types (human, social/political, natural, infrastructure and financial, such as microcredit). Review of key ratios of relative number and wealth of service providers and beneficiaries supports the first hypothesis and rejects the notion of widespread potential for reducing upstream rural poverty through individual cash payments. Results of community focus group discussions support the second hypothesis through context-specific preferences for the mechanisms by which RES can trigger conditions for sustainable development.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Leimona, B., Joshi, L., & Noordwijk, M., 2009. Can rewards for environmental services benefit the poor? Lessons from Asia. International Journal of the Commons, North America. 3(1): 82-107. www.thecommonsjournal.org/index.php/ijc/article/view/121/85

Case Study

Case study details

Sustainable oil palm development on degraded land

Study from: 2009, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): Indonesia (Java)

Abstract:

The palm oil industry has been accused of clearing rainforest for palm oil

plantations in South-East Asia, resulting in unsustainable palm oil production.

To improve the situation, WRI, WWF and Tropical Crop Consultants Ltd demonstrated

how degraded land could be used for profitable and sustainable palm oil

production, providing additional benefits to the local people, to the local economy

and to the environment (reduction of GHG emissions and deforestation).

Full reference of the paper/report:

World Resources Institute, 2010.. Degraded Land, Sustainable

Palm Oil, and Indonesia’s Future. www.wri.org/blog/2010/07/degraded-land-sustainable-palm-oil-and-indonesia%E2%80%99s-future

Case Study

Case study details

The Farm-Level Economics of Soil Conservation: The Uplands of Java

Study from: 1987-1988, published in 1990
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Indonesia (Java)

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the farmer's decision to invest in the control of soil loss on privately owned land. The insights from the model are applied to the case of farmers in the upper watersheds of Java, Indonesia. The off-site impacts of land erosion, such as impacts of soil runoff and sedimentation on lower watershed economic activities, are ignored. Land expansion is also not considered. The evidence for upland farmers on Java demonstrates that, without appropriate economic incentives, upland farmers will not modify their land management practices and farming systems to control erosion. In some cases, such as growing horticultural crops on deep volcanic soils in the steep uplands, there is little incentive as soil erosion appears to have negligible effects on farm profitability. Because of the high costs of bench terracing, especially in terms of labor, poorer farmers growing lower valued crops may be reluctant to terrace. Other incentive effects can be traced directly to government policies, such as high relative prices for cassava and vegetables, fertilizer subsidies and the lack of affordable rural credit.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 1990. The farm-level economics of soil conservation: The uplands of Java. Land Economics.66(2):199-211. www.jstor.org/stable/3146369


Case studies in Zambia

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Value of Land and Costs of Land Degradation in Zamibia (First draft)

Study from: 2012, published in 2012
Authors: L.M. Chabala, E. Kuntashula, P. Hamukwala, B.H. Chishala and E. Phiri
Location(s): Zambia

Abstract:

With the many competing uses, land resources are said to be an integral part of the national economy in Zambia. Land resources are further recognized for the ecosystem services and goods they provide. This recognition is echoed in the National Agriculture Policy (NAP) for Zambia for the period 2004 to 2015. Among the major objectives of the NAP (MACO, 2004) is the need to ensure that the land resource base is sustained. It identifies the current environmental problems as rapid deforestation, loss of agro-biodiversity, land degradation and over-fishing. It is therefore recommended that sustainable land management practices must be introduced to minimize the effects of these problems on the national economy and the environment. In view of the foregoing, the University of Zambia (UNZA) in conjunction with Global Mechanism (GM) and the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) initiated a study under the theme; ‘Assessing the value of land and cost of land degradation in Zambia’. The goal of the study was to increase public and private investments in sustainable land management (SLM) through demonstrating the economic benefits of SLM as opposed to unsustainable land use or land management practices. The overall purpose of the study was to assess the value of SLM and the cost of land degradation in Zambia. Emphasis was placed on generating evidence to support sustainable SLM policies and investment based on demonstrating their existing and potential contribution to national development and poverty reduction. This is in line with the NAP which recognizes that sustainable management of land resources is an underpinning requirement for sustainable development.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Chabala, L.M., Kuntashula, E., Hamukwala, P., B.H. Chishala, B.H., & Phiri, E., 2012. Assessing the value of land and costs of degradation in Zamibia (first draft). Global Mechanism and Stockholm Environment Institute. www.theoslo.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/EVS_Zambia_Final_Report_Feb2012_EDITED.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Barotse floodplains along the Zambezi River in Western Zambia

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Moses Kazungu, Fritz Kleemann, Bettina Piepho, Nerea Okongo’o
Location(s): Zambia

Abstract:

Barotse floodplain is described as an area with high ecological and agricultural potential but characterised by widespread poverty among the inhabitants. The floodplain is considered to be an international, national as well as a local resource because it is located geographically within the Zambezi River Basin which flows through eight countries. The wetland plays a regulatory, carrier, production and information functions with variety of aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) such as fishing, papyrus, forests, crops and livestock. The floodplain presents a high potential for agricultural and ecosystem services, however, some areas in the floodplains are less suitable for crop production because of ecological marginality. The areas that are less suitable are in the upper areas of the floodplains, whereas the lower parts of the floodplains are suitable for crop production especially rice production. The tidal variations at the Barotse floodplain system lead to periodic movement of people from the lower basin to upper basin. The periodic movement of people from lower floodplain to upper floodplain is described as "Kuomboka". Human and economic pressures also add to the degradation of the floodplain with the economic value of the wetland estimated at $4,229,309.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Kazungu, M., Kleemann, F., Piepho, B., Okongo’o, N. 2015. Barotse floodplains along the Zambezi River in Western Zambia. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Rhino Conservation in a Land-Use Context within the Region

Study from: 2005, published in 2005
Authors: A. Spenceley and J. Barnes
Location(s): South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Botswana and Zambia

Abstract:

In December 2004 IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa commissioned an economic analysis of rhino conservation in southern Africa. The aim of the analysis was to explore the rationale for regarding rhino as "flagship species" in terms of: The extent to which they might “add value" to existing wildlife operations in state and private areas; The extent to which their protection and monitoring needs might confer blanket protection for other wildlife components that might be vulnerable to human pressures (notably poaching, and including the converse possibility, that rhino may attract poachers into an area where other wildlife is then poached); The extent to they might contribute to community-based tourism and thereby to rural livelihoods, including comment on the opportunities for "direct incentives" payments to landholders or communities who ensure breeding opportunities for this species; The extent to which, in view of the above, they might be catalytic to land-use changes that entail a move towards wildlife production from alternative land-uses such as livestock production. Economic analyses were to concentrate on market values of relevant goods and services rather than non-use values, and to outline the issues and implications of consumptive uses of rhino within the SADC region. The analysis was essentially a pilot study that was designed to achieve an initial general insight into economic issues surrounding black and white rhino in southern Africa. Therefore rather than providing a comparative analysis between sites, or longitudinal evaluations, the study is largely descriptive for one or two case study sites within each part of the analysis. Where the availability of data has allowed, economic scenario analyses have been performed to generate realistic predictions for revenue generation in the future for enterprises and reserves that support rhino populations. In addition to presenting economic data regarding rhino around southern Africa, the discussion attempts to outline the issues and implications of consumptive and non-consumptive use of rhinos within the SADC region. The study considered whether rhino added value to wildlife operations in state and private areas by evaluating revenue generating activities and costs associated with rhino in South Africa and Namibia. The evaluation concluded that both black and white rhino provide a net benefit to both state and private protected areas through both consumptive and non-consumptive use. Considering the development of conservancies in Namibia and Zimbabwe, rhino have played a pivotal role in motivating land-use change. In Namibia the community-based natural resource management program embraces a major portion of all communal lands in the country, so that large areas are now allocated to wildlife uses, alongside livestock. In Zimbabwe financial benefits associated with the presence of rhino on private land catalysed the change in use from livestock to wildlife. A series of factors combined to bring about this change, which included an enabling political environment and legislation, support by WWF and appropriate financial assistance, the unsuitability of the habitat for livestock production and co-operation between neighbouring landowners. Both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of rhino have the potential to generate significant amounts of economic income and to contribute to the livelihoods of rural people. As land uses, they tend to be complementary and not mutually exclusive. This and other studies have shown that combinations of both non-consumptive and consumptive uses will generate maximum benefits. To provide the incentives needed for massive investment in rhino conservation, all possible uses should be explored for rhino.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Spencely, A., & Barnes, J., 2005. Economic analysis of rhino conservation in a land-use context region. SADC Regional Programme for Rhino Conservation. Harare, Zimbabwe. anna.spenceley.co.uk/files/Spenceley%20&%20Barnes.pdf


Case studies in Philippines

Case Study

Case study details

Can Rewards for Environmental Services Benefit the Poor? Lessons from Asia

Study from: 2002-2007, published in 2009
Authors: B. Leimona, L. Joshi and M. Noordwijk
Location(s): Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines, Nepal)

Abstract:

Pro-poor rewards for environmental services (RES) link global priorities on poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Emerging approaches to payment for environmental services vary in mechanism and form of payment. Rural poverty is multidimensional and the poverty syndromes vary with the intensity of landscape use and management, with the solution to lack of access to markets, education and healthcare associated with loss of natural capital. RES mechanisms have to balance effectiveness and efficiency with fairness and pro-poor characteristics, with transaction costs as obstacles to both. The economic perspective on financial transfers needs to be balanced with the social and environmental paradigms of fairness. Our first hypothesis is that only under specific circumstances, actual cash incentive to individual participants of RES will contribute substantially to poverty alleviation of ES providers. The second hypothesis is that non-financial incentive to ES providers will contribute to reducing poverty by linking the community (participants and non-participants) to access to capital types (human, social/political, natural, infrastructure and financial, such as microcredit). Review of key ratios of relative number and wealth of service providers and beneficiaries supports the first hypothesis and rejects the notion of widespread potential for reducing upstream rural poverty through individual cash payments. Results of community focus group discussions support the second hypothesis through context-specific preferences for the mechanisms by which RES can trigger conditions for sustainable development.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Leimona, B., Joshi, L., & Noordwijk, M., 2009. Can rewards for environmental services benefit the poor? Lessons from Asia. International Journal of the Commons, North America. 3(1): 82-107. www.thecommonsjournal.org/index.php/ijc/article/view/121/85

Case Study

Case study details

Erosion/Productivity Modelling of Maize Farming in the Philippine Uplands: Part II: Simulation of Alternative Farming Methods

Study from: 1997 (based on 36 years of climate data), published in 1998
Authors: R. A. Nelson, J. P. Dimes, D. M. Silburn, E. P. Paningbatan and R. A. Cramb
Location(s): the Philippines (uplands)

Abstract:

A version of the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) capable of simulating the key agronomic aspects of intercropping maize between legume shrub hedgerows was described and parameterised in the first paper of this series (Nelson et al., this issue). In this paper, APSIM is used to simulate maize yields and soil erosion from traditional open-field farming and hedgerow intercropping in the Philippine uplands. Two variants of open-field farming were simulated using APSIM, continuous and fallow, for comparison with intercropping maize between leguminous shrub hedgerows. Continuous open-field maize farming was predicted to be unsustainable in the long term, while fallow open-field farming was predicted to slow productivity decline by spreading the effect of erosion over a larger cropping area. Hedgerow intercropping was predicted to reduce erosion by maintaining soil surface cover during periods of intense rainfall, contributing to sustainable production of maize in the long term. In the third paper in this series, Nelson et al. (this issue) use cost–benefit analysis to compare the economic viability of hedgerow intercropping relative to traditional open-field farming of maize in relatively inaccessible upland areas.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Nelson, R.A., Dimes, J.P., Silburn, D.M., Paningbatan, E.P., & Cramb, R.A., 1998. Erosion/productivity modelling of maize farming in the Philippine uplands: Part II: simulation of alternative farming methods. Agricultural Systems.58(2): 147-163. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308521X98000444

Case Study

Case study details

Erosion/Productivity Modelling of Maize Farming in the Philippine Uplands: Part III: Economic Analysis of Alternative Farming Methods

Study from: 1997, published in 1998
Authors: R. A. Nelson, R. A. Cramb and M. A. Mamicpic
Location(s): the Philippines (uplands)

Abstract:

Two previous papers in this series (Nelson et al., 1988) described the use of the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) to simulate the effect of erosion on maize yields from open-field farming and hedgerow intercropping in the Philippine uplands. In this paper, maize yields simulated with APSIM are used to compare the economic viability of intercropping maize between leguminous shrub hedgerows with that of continuous and fallow open-field farming of maize. The analysis focuses on the economic incentives of upland farmers to adopt hedgerow intercropping, discussing farmers' planning horizons, access to credit and security of land tenure, as well as maize pricing in the Philippines. Insecure land tenure has limited the planning horizons of upland farmers, and high establishment costs reduce the economic viability of hedgerow intercropping relative to continuous and fallow open-field farming in the short term. In the long term, high discount rates and share-tenancy arrangements in which landlords do not contribute to establishment costs reduce the economic viability of hedgerow intercropping relative to fallow open-field farming.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Nelson, R.A., Dimes, J.P., Silburn, D.M., Paningbatan, E.P., & Cramb, R.A., 1988. Erosion/productivity modelling of maize farming in the Philippine uplands: Part III: economic analysis of alternative farming methods. Agricultural Systems. 58(2): 165-183. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308521X98000456

Case Study

Case study details

Stakeholder Engagement Plan - Camp John Hay, Baguio City

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Ana Riza S. Mendoza; Ephrem Santos; Jenny Choo Tze Pei; Aimee Rogers; June Punnathon; Dinali Jayasinghe
Location(s): the Philippines

Abstract:

Camp John Hay, a former rest and recreational facility for the employees of the United States Military in the Philippines is facing land degradation such as soil creeping and erosion. Ecological retrogression at the Benguet Pine Forest is limiting its capacity to regenerate and increase biodiversity. To address this issue, this stakeholder engagement plan includes a financial plan for the 2-year engagement process which includes detailed budgetary requirements of facilities and equipment, general operations, stakeholders engagement activities, maintenance and other operating expenses, and publications. Measures of Success are presented using the combination of both Outcome-based and Process-based evaluation criteria based on the Input-Process-Result (Output/Outcome/Impact) matrix.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Mendoza, A.R., Santos, E., Pei, J.C.T., Rogers, A., Punnathon, J., Jayasinghe, D. 2015. Stakeholder Engagement Plan - Camp John Hay, Baguio City. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Why the New Mining Regulations Can Not Yet Assure a Successful Mine Rehabilitation? An Analysis of the Regulatory Framework of Mine Rehabilitation in the Philippines

Study from: 1999, published in unpublished
Authors: A. D. Anda Jr
Location(s): the Philippines (Benguet)

Abstract:

The new mining regulations in the Philippines intend to pursue policies that balance economic growth with environmental protection and rehabilitation. This paper aims to look deeper into the new regulations and its implications for current mine rehabilitation practices.

Comparative review of identified key criteria and qualitative analyses of the specific provisions of the new regulations on mine rehabilitation with the old regulatory regime reveals that the expected changes are not forthcoming. The new regulatory system can not ensure successful rehabilitation of mine-disturbed lands because the specific standards, measurable targets, rehabilitation funds and administrative support mechanisms that will bring profound changes to the current rehabilitation practices were not sufficient. With a wide range of uncertainties and the difficulty of attributing damage to a certain mine operator, the current mode of compliance tended to favor cost minimization and unwarranted risk-taking by the mining operators, to the disadvantages of other stakeholders. Any additional actions and costs are voluntary and unsustainable if not accompanied by clear targets and benefits. Moreover, any improvement brought about by the voluntary mode can not be ascribed to the new regulations.

This paper is part of the thesis entitled ‘The New Mining Regulations in the Philippines and their Implications for Current Mine Rehabilitation Practices’ presented on January 1999 for the degree of MS in Natural Resource Management at The University of Western Australia. The study was supported by the AusAID (Australian Agency for International Development) and the Philippine government through the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Natural Resources Development Corporation.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Anda, A., 1999. Why the new mining regulations can not yet assure a successful mine rehabilitation? An analysis of the regulatory framework of mine rehabilitation in the Philippines. Unpublished paper. Quezon City, Philippines.


Case studies in Nepal

Case Study

Case study details

Can Rewards for Environmental Services Benefit the Poor? Lessons from Asia

Study from: 2002-2007, published in 2009
Authors: B. Leimona, L. Joshi and M. Noordwijk
Location(s): Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines, Nepal)

Abstract:

Pro-poor rewards for environmental services (RES) link global priorities on poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Emerging approaches to payment for environmental services vary in mechanism and form of payment. Rural poverty is multidimensional and the poverty syndromes vary with the intensity of landscape use and management, with the solution to lack of access to markets, education and healthcare associated with loss of natural capital. RES mechanisms have to balance effectiveness and efficiency with fairness and pro-poor characteristics, with transaction costs as obstacles to both. The economic perspective on financial transfers needs to be balanced with the social and environmental paradigms of fairness. Our first hypothesis is that only under specific circumstances, actual cash incentive to individual participants of RES will contribute substantially to poverty alleviation of ES providers. The second hypothesis is that non-financial incentive to ES providers will contribute to reducing poverty by linking the community (participants and non-participants) to access to capital types (human, social/political, natural, infrastructure and financial, such as microcredit). Review of key ratios of relative number and wealth of service providers and beneficiaries supports the first hypothesis and rejects the notion of widespread potential for reducing upstream rural poverty through individual cash payments. Results of community focus group discussions support the second hypothesis through context-specific preferences for the mechanisms by which RES can trigger conditions for sustainable development.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Leimona, B., Joshi, L., & Noordwijk, M., 2009. Can rewards for environmental services benefit the poor? Lessons from Asia. International Journal of the Commons, North America. 3(1): 82-107. www.thecommonsjournal.org/index.php/ijc/article/view/121/85


Case studies in Sudan

Case Study

Case study details

Causes and Impacts of Land Degradation and Desertification: Case Study of the Sudan

Study from: 2012, published in 2013
Authors: O. A. Abdi, E. K. Glover and O. Luukkanen
Location(s): Sudan

Abstract:

Desertification, a phenomenon referring to land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and human activities, is considered as one of the most severe environmental and socio-economic problems of recent times. The principal aim of this study was to explore the impacts of desertification, degradation and drought on both the natural resources and man's livelihood in the Sudan and to suggest appropriate forest resource management interventions. The study was based on a fact finding tour in the Sudan and data collection on drought trends as reflected in rainfall trends in the study area, and on trends concerning the productivity of natural resources. Information was also compiled from existing records on rainfall, forest land cover, forest stocking, rangelands and carrying capacity and on agricultural productivity and population trends. Results showed that in rain-fed agricultural zones in the Sudan, deep ploughing and leveling of the surface soil caused an increase in its susceptibility to wind erosion, which, in turn, has led to a severe decline in its fertility and, in some places, the formation of sand dunes. The implications of these trends on the natural resource base include environmental degradation, food insecurity and aggravation of income inequalities among the Sudanese producers. The study has suggested Agroforestry technology as a potential solution to this continued problem of declining rural agricultural production in the Sudan.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Abdi, O.A., Glover, E.K., & Luukkanen, O., 2013. Causes and impacts of land degradation and desertification: Case study of the Sudan. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 3(2): 40-51. article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.ijaf.20130302.03.html

Case Study

Case study details

Economic valuation of rangeland ecosystem services and their degradation, and cost benefit analysis of operational SLM methodologies - Sudan

Study from: 2013, published in 2014
Authors: Aymeric Ricome, Moe Myint, and Vanja Westerberg
Location(s): Sudan

Abstract:

Gedaref State was previously known as the food basket of Sudan. Over several decades unsustainable agricultural practices that combined near-monocropping with low nutrient replenishment have led to significant degradation of soils, which are no longer able to sustain farmer livelihoods. This study found that adopting an integrated sustainable land use and forest restoration scenario could reverse the current land degradation trend. The integration of Acacia senegal with sorghum, Sudan’s primary staple crop, was evaluated as a potential sustainable land management practice. A. senegal is a high quality gum arabic producing tree species, traditionally integrated into a crop and fallow system. It has soil nitrogen enhancing properties and international demand for its gum, make it a promising species to integrate in agricultural systems for both environmental and economic health. In parallel, consideration was also given to reforesting hills that have bare and exposed soil, with Luban gum trees such as Boswellia catering, Boswellia frererana, and Boswellia papyrifera. Currently these hills are not used for productive gains and have no competing land use, thus their reforestation would incur little to no opportunity costs.

 

The valuation of both proposed integrated sustainable land management and forest restoration scenarios were undertaken using an ex-ante cost benefit analysis. An assessment of the ecosystem services and economic impact of restoration scenarios was carried out using valuation techniques which included a productivity change approach, and replacement and avoided damage cost approaches. The analysis built on high-resolution remote sensing, GIS, and biophysical soil and water assessment tools, allowing for rigourous estimates of the impact of land use change on agricultural yields, groundwater infiltration, water runoff, and carbon sequestration.

 

The results showed that the net present value returns to society as well as to the individual farmer of intercropping A. senegal trees with sorghum crops is significantly higher than that of continuing pure sorghum cultivation over a 25 year time horizon – the length of the productive life of A. senegal. At the farmer level, benefits of using an intercropping system outweigh the investment and management costs between three to four years after their establishment. However, favourable estimates of the financial returns from gum arabic offer no guarantee that the farmer will undertake gum production (Barbier 2000). This decision will depend on what returns can be obtained from other crops and the time profile of these returns, as argued in Barbier (1992). Thus, there are a number of fundamental policy initiatives necessary to encourage farmers to transition towards integrating A. senegal as part of a sustainable land management system, including security of tenure and access to credit, as well as maintenance of the actual producer price for gum arabic in the long term.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Aymeric, R., Myint. M.M., & Westerberg, V. (2014). An economic valuation of sustainable land management through agroforestry in eastern Sudan. Report for the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative by the International Union for conservation of Nature, Nairobi, Kenya. Available from: www.eld-initiative.org

Case Study

Case study details

Review of the Literature on Pastoral Economics and Marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganada, and Sudan

Study from: 2006, published in 2006
Authors: M. Odhiambo
Location(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan

Abstract:

This is a report to the World Initiative on Sustainable Pastoralism within the framework of its Economics of Pastoralism consultancy, which seeks to collate and document information on economic valuations of pastoralism in the East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, as well as Sudan. We were however not able to gather much data and information about Sudan, with the result that the report is mainly concentrated on the three East African countries. The report confirms the paucity of data about the value of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies, not because that contribution is lacking, but mainly because the analytical framework of these economies does not permit its full appreciation. Even where efforts have been made to collect data, this has been limited to data on livestock and livestock products such as milk, hides and skins sold at national markets. Non-monetised contributions such as manure, draught power, control of bush and weeds, recycling of household waste are not captured or acknowledged. Nor is the contribution that pastoralism makes to the conservation and wildlife-based tourism. At the heart of this inadequate appreciation of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies is a pervasive misperception of pastoralism and pastoralists across the region. Despite the fact that pastoralism is one of the most researched livelihood systems in the world, and that it continues to hold an abiding enchantment especially to Western researchers even today, the perception of pastoralism within policy circles in the region remains clouded by stereotypes and myths. Many think of pastoralism, not as a livelihood system but as a stage in the transition of society from backwardness to modernization. Pastoralists, and in particular, nomadic pastoralists are thus seen as holding on to a livelihood system and practices that are not appropriate to current imperatives of social, cultural and economic change. These perceptions exist at the highest levels of government, and inform and define the type of interventions that governments have for years implemented in pastoral areas, with a view to transforming pastoralism and pastoralists and bringing them to the levels of modernity. These interventions have invariably targeted the livestock component of pastoralism, and sought to transform pastoralists “from being nomadic cattle herders to being settled modern livestock keepers”. It is not surprising that these interventions have invariably failed. They are founded on a poor understanding of the rationale of pastoral livelihood practices and land use. They are topdown and inspired by a desire to civilize pastoralists. Worse still, the interventions are premised on a perception of pastoralists as irrational and pastoralism itself as a problem, associating it with environmental degradation, conflict, and resistance to change. They are informed by the generalization that pastoralism “is constrained by poor animal husbandry, lack of modernization, accumulation of stock beyond carrying capacity and lack of market orientation…”. This study is based on a desk review of published material that we were able to unearth in libraries and on the Internet. We have already alluded to the fact that we were unable to obtain much on Sudan. However, even with respect to the other three countries, there are substantial information gaps in so far as the economics of pastoralism is concerned.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Odhiambo, M., 2006. Review of the literature on pastoral economics and marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and the Sudan. Report prepared for the World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism, IUCN EARO RECONCILE, Kenya. cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/eastern_africa_reports.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

The Economic Linkages between Rural Poverty and Land Degradation: Some Evidence from Africa

Study from: 1999-2000, published in 2000
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Africa (Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya)

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the potential role of policy in influencing the poverty and land degradation problems facing Africa. This is done through exploring a few case studies, chosen from a broad spectrum of African countries — Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. The first case study examines the comparative returns to the gum arabic agroforestry system cultivated by poor farmers in Northern Sudan, and the role of policies in influencing these returns. The second explores how erratic agricultural pricing policies in Malawi during the 1980s may have distorted the incentives of poor smallholders to adopt less-erosive crops in their farming systems. The third case study illustrates how inappropriate policies and investments can cause displacement of poorer rural groups from their traditional farming and grazing lands, by examining the loss of a major floodplain due to dam building in northern Nigeria. The final two case studies are concerned with policy ‘lessons learned’. The first looks at the impact of a macro-economic adjustment policy — in this case trade liberalization — on farmers’ decisions to expand cultivated area rather than intensify crop production in western Ghana. The final case study examines the role of policy in land management success story in Africa, the Machakos District, Kenya, and explores the critical question of whether this success can be replicated elsewhere in Africa. These case studies serve two important functions. First, they demonstrate how policy analysis can be effective in highlighting key dimensions of the poverty–environment linkages underlying land degradation. Second, they illustrate how both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ policies can affect the economic incentives determining poor rural household’s decisions to conserve or degrade their land.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2000. The economic linkages between rural poverty and land degradation: Some evidence from Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 82: 355-370. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880900002371


Case studies in United States

Case Study

Case study details

Change in Ecosystem Service Values in the San Antonio Area, TexS

Study from: based on data from 1982-1997, published in 2001
Authors: U.P. Kreuter, H.G. Harris, M.D. Matlock and R.E. Lacey
Location(s): Texas (San Antonio), United States of America

Abstract:

San Antonio is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the USA. Urban sprawl may significantly impact ecosystem services and functions but such effects are difficult to quantify and watershed-level estimates are seldom attempted. The objective of the study reported here was to determine whether LANDSAT MSS could be used to quantify changes in land-use and ecosystem services due to urban sprawl in Bexar County, TX, in which San Antonio is centered. The size of six land cover categories in the summer of 1976, 1985, and 1991 were estimated in the 141 671 ha of three watersheds in Bexar County. Coefficients published by Costanza and co-workers in 1997 [Nature 387 (1997) 253] were used to value changes in ecosystem services delivered by each land cover category, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of manipulating these coefficients on the estimated values. Although we estimated that there was a 65% decrease in the area of rangeland and a 29% increase in the area of urbanized land use between 1976 and 1991, there appeared to be only a 4% net decline in the estimated annual value of ecosystem services in the study area (i.e. $5.58 ha?1 per year, with a 15-year cumulative total value of $6.24 million for the whole study area). This relatively small decline could be attributed to the neutralizing effect of the estimated 403% increase in the area of the woodlands, which were assigned the highest ecosystem value coefficient. When we assumed that the shift of rangelands to woodlands produced no net change in the value of ecosystem services per hectare, the estimated annual ecosystem service value declined by 15.4% ($23.22 ha?1 per year) between 1976 and 1991. When conducting time-series studies of ecosystem services, it is important to identify parallel changes in land cover types in order to quantify the potentially neutralizing influence of positive land cover changes on the negative effects of urban sprawl on ecosystem services

Full reference of the paper/report:

Kreuter, U.P., Harris, H.G., Matlock, M.D., & Lacey, R.E., 2001. Change in ecosystem service values in the San Antonio area, Texas. Ecological Economics. 39: 333-346. agrilifecdn.tamu.edu/kreuter/files/2013/01/Change-in-ecosystem-service-values-in-SanAntonio-areaTexas_6.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Ecosystem Service Value of Water Supply Benefits Provided by Forest Stands in the Mattole River Watershed, California: A Bioeconomic and Benefit Transfer- Spatial Analysis Application (Masters Thesis)

Study from: 2010-2012, published in 2012
Authors: M. Kaufman
Location(s): California (Mattole River Watershed), United States of America

Abstract:

This thesis outlines an approach based on valuing ecosystem services for assessing the trade-offs in yields from forestland management. The ecosystem services valuation approach integrates ecology and economics to help explain the effects of land management on forest and watershed ecosystem services. These services, including the cycling of clean air and clean water supplies and provisions of habitat for flora and fauna, are essentially free and considered positive externalities. As such, these services are undervalued and consequently underprovided because the beneficiaries do not pay for them. This thesis presents a simple bioeconomic model for estimating ecosystem service values. By using the benefit transfer method, Geographic Information Systems applications, and developing a forest hydrology streamflow model, I estimated ecosystem service values, for water supply benefits to fisheries provided by forest stands for the case of the Mattole River Watershed in Northern California. Results indicate that the remaining old growth stands in the Mattole Watershed provide more than $1,910,800 a year in water supply benefits to the region. This information may be useful in future analysis of the total economic impacts of how forest management affects water related benefits and ecological services.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Kaufman, M., 2012. Humboldt State University. Ecosystem service value of water supply benefits provided by forest stands in the Mattole River watershed, California: A bioeconomic and benefit transfer-spatial analysis application (Masters thesis). Humboldt State University. Arcata, USA. humboldt-dspace.calstate.edu/handle/2148/1147

Case Study

Case study details

The Impact of Land-Use Change on Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Returns to Landowners: A Case Study in the State of Minnesota

Study from: based on data from 1992-2001, published in 2011
Authors: S. Polasky, E. Nelson, D. Pennington and K. A. Johnson
Location(s): United States (Minnesota)

Abstract:

Land-use change has a significant impact on the world’s ecosystems. Changes in the extent and composition of forests, grasslands, wetlands and other ecosystems have large impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation and returns to landowners. While the change in private returns to landowners due to land-use change can often be measured, changes in the supply and value of ecosystem services and the provision of biodiversity conservation have been harder to quantify. In this paper we use a spatially explicit integrated modeling tool (InVEST) to quantify the changes in ecosystem services, habitat for biodiversity, and returns to landowners from land-use change in Minnesota from 1992 to 2001. We evaluate the impact of actual land-use change and a suite of alternative land-use change scenarios. We find a lack of concordance in the ranking of baseline and alternative land-use scenarios in terms of generation of private returns to landowners and net social benefits (private returns plus ecosystem service value). Returns to landowners are highest in a scenario with large-scale agricultural expansion. This scenario, however, generated the lowest net social benefits across all scenarios considered because of large losses in stored carbon and negative impacts on water quality. Further, this scenario resulted in the largest decline in habitat quality for general terrestrial biodiversity and forest songbirds. Our results illustrate the importance of taking ecosystem services into account in land-use and land-management decision-making and linking such decisions to incentives that accurately reflect social returns

Full reference of the paper/report:

Polasky, S., Nelson, E., Pennington, D., & Johnson, K.A., 2011. The impact of land-use change on ecosystem services, biodiversity and returns to landowners: A case study in the state of Minnesota. Environmental and Resource Economics. 48: 219–242. link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10640-010-9407-0.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

The Value of New Jersey's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital

Study from: 2004-2006, published in 2006
Authors: R. Costanza, M. Wilson, A. Troy, A. Voinov, S.Liu and J. D’Agostino
Location(s): New Jersey, United States

Abstract:

This report summarizes the results of a two-year study of the economic value of New Jersey’s natural capital. Natural capital consists of those components of the natural environment that provide a long-term stream of benefits to individual people and to society as a whole; the value of natural capital is defined in this report as the present value of that benefit stream. Many of the benefits provided by natural capital come from ecological systems (“ecosystems”); an ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and their nonliving environment, all interacting as a functional unit. The benefits provided by natural capital include both goods and services; goods come from both ecosystems (e.g., timber) and abiotic (non-living) sources (e.g., mineral deposits), while services are mainly provided by ecosystems. Examples of ecosystem services (“ecoservices”) include temporary storage of flood waters by wetlands, long-term storage of climate-altering greenhouse gases in forests, dilution and assimilation of wastes by rivers, and numerous others. All of these services provide economic value to human beings. The goods provided by New Jersey’s natural capital are covered in a separate study; this report focuses on the services provided the state’s ecosystems, covering twelve different types of ecosystem and twelve different ecoservices. For policy, planning, and regulatory decisions, it is important for New Jerseyans to know not only what ecosystem goods and services will be affected by public and private actions, but also what their economic value is relative to other marketed and non-marketed goods and services, such as those provided by physical capital (e.g., roads), human capital investment (e.g., education), etc. As a way of expressing these relative values or “trade-offs”, this study estimated the dollar value of the ecoservices produced by New Jersey’s ecosystems. In deriving these estimates, we used three different approaches: value transfer, hedonic analysis, and spatial modeling.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Costanza, R., Wilson, M., Troy, A., Voinov, A., Liu, S., & D’Agostino, J., 2006. The value of New Jersey's ecosystem services and natural capital. Gund Institute for Ecological Economics. Vermont, United States. www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/naturalcap/nat-cap-2.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Valuation of Ecosystem Services from Rural Landscapes Using Agricultural Land Prices

Study from: based on data from 2003-2007, published in 2011
Authors: S. Ma and S.M. Swinton
Location(s): Michigan (southwest), United States of America

Abstract:

Agricultural lands, primarily managed for crops and livestock production, provide various ecosystem services (ES) to people. In theory, the economic value of the service flows that can be captured privately is capitalized into land prices. This study proposes an integrative framework to characterize the ecosystem services associated with agricultural lands. Using that framework, we demonstrate how hedonic analysis of agricultural land prices can be used to estimate the private values of land-based ES. The model is estimated with data from southwestern Michigan, USA. Results suggest that ES values are associated with lakes, rivers, wetlands, forests and conservation lands in rural landscapes. Ecosystem services that support direct use values, such as recreational and aesthetic services, are likely to be perceived by land owners and capitalized in land prices. Some regulating services that provide indirect use values may be partially capitalized in a land parcel's relationship to natural resources and landscapes. Other ES from the land parcel and its surroundings are unlikely to be capitalized due to lack of private incentives, unawareness, or small perceived value. The private ES values measured in this study highlight opportunities to design cost-effective public policies that factor in the value of private benefits from agricultural lands.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Ma, S., & Swinton, S.M., 2011. Valuation of ecosystem services from rural landscapes using agricultural land prices. Ecological Economics.70: 1649–1659. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800911001522

Case Study

Case study details

Valuing Ecosystem and Economic Services Across Land-use Scenarios in the Prairie Pothole Region of the Dakotas, USA

Study from: 2010 (based on data from 2000, 2007-2008), published in 2011
Authors: W. R. Gascoigne, D. Hoag, L. Koontz, B. A. Tangen, T. L. Shaffer and R. A. Gleason
Location(s): USA (Prairie Pothole Region of the Dakotas)

Abstract:

This study uses biophysical values derived for the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota, in conjunction with value transfer methods, to assess environmental and economic tradeoffs under different policy-relevant land-use scenarios over a 20-year period. The ecosystem service valuation is carried out by comparing the biophysical and economic values of three focal services (i.e. carbon sequestration, reduction in sedimentation, and waterfowl production) across three focal land uses in the region [i.e. native prairie grasslands, lands enrolled in the Conservation Reserve and Wetlands Reserve Programs (CRP/WRP), and cropland]. This study finds that CRP/WRP lands cannot mitigate (hectare for hectare) the loss of native prairie from a social welfare standpoint. Land use scenarios where native prairie loss was minimized, and CRP/WRP lands were increased, provided the most societal benefit. The scenario modeling projected native prairie conversion to cropland over the next 20 years would result in a social welfare loss valued at over $4 billion when considering the study's three ecosystem services, and a net loss of about $3.4 billion when reductions in commodity production are accounted for.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Gascoigne, W.R., Hoag, D., Koontz, L., Tangen, B.A., Shaffer, T.L., & Gleason, R.A., 2011. Valuing ecosystem and economic services across land-use scenarios in the Prairie Pothole Region of the Dakotas, USA. Ecological Economics. 70(10): 1715-1725. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800911001637

Case Study

Case study details

Valuing The Puget Sound Basin - Revealing our Best Investments

Study from: 2008-2010 (improving upon a 2008 analysis), published in 2010
Authors: D Batker, M. Kocian, J. McFadden and R. Schmidt
Location(s): Washington State (Puget Sound)

Abstract:

Nature provides goods and services offering magnificent value and extraordinary investment opportunity. 14 goods and services provided by nature within the Puget Sound Basin provide benefits worth between $9.7 billion and $83 billion every year. This "natural capital" includes drinking water, food, wildlife, climate regulation, flood protection, recreation, aesthetic value and more. Valuing the asset that provides this annual flow of goods and services - that is, the natural capital of the Puget Sound Basin, as if it were a capital asset shows it would be valued between $305 billion and $2.6 trillion (at a 3% discount rate). By providing a range this report avoids that arbitrary single number selection. The lower values provided in this study are really base values. Natural assets examined in this report, such as water, flood protection, and recreation, are far more stable in value than many other economic assets. This study identifies 23 natural goods and services that provide value to people, businesses and government agencies. Of these, 14 were valued. These ecosystem services can also be mapped, showing the provisioning areas, beneficiaries and impairments to ecosystem services; values will be further refined when we are able to take full advantage of modeling systems currently under development (see page 76). Understanding the value ecosystem services provide, where these benefits are provided on the landscape, who benefits from them and where they are impaired sets up a sound scientific and economic basis for developing funding mechanisms to secure this vast value. Even at the low end of this estimate, the value of natural systems in the Puget Sound Basin is enormous. Yet this wealth is being lost. As the ecological health of the region deteriorates, benefits once provided for free and potentially in perpetuity are deteriorating or disappearing.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Batker, D., Kocian, M., McFadden, J., & Schmidt, R., 2010. Valuing the Puget Sound basin - Revealing our best investments. Earth Economics. Tacoma, USA. www.eartheconomics.org/FileLibrary/file/Reports/Puget%20Sound%20and%20Watersheds/Puget%20Sound%20Russell/Valuing%20the%20Puget%20Sound%20Basin%20v1.0.pdf


Case studies in Iran

Case Study

Case study details

Combating Desertification in Iran Over the Last 50 years: An Overview of Changing Approaches

Study from: 1960-2010, published in 2011
Authors: F. Amiraslani and D.Dragovich
Location(s): Iran

Abstract:

Desertification in Iran was recognized between the 1930s and 1960s. This paper traces Iran’s attempts to reclaim desertified areas, evaluates the anti-desertification approaches adopted, and identifies continuing challenges. Iran has areas vulnerable to desertification due to extensive areas of drylands and increasing population pressure on land and water resources. Over-grazing of rangelands is a particular problem. Initially desertification was combated mainly at the local level and involved dune stabilization measures, especially the use of oil mulch, re-vegetation and windbreaks. Insufficient technical planning in the early years has led to changed approaches to plant densities and species diversity in plantations, and increased on-going management of existing plantations. Since the late 1980s forage and crop production has increased in areas where runoff control techniques are practiced. The social and economic aspects of anti-desertification programs have assisted in poverty reduction by providing offseason employment in rural areas. In 2004 a national plan to combat desertification was ratified and this placed an emphasis on community participation. Continuing challenges include managing existing desertified areas as well as taking into account potential future problems associated with rapidly depleting groundwater supplies and a predicted reduction in the plant growth period accompanying climate change.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Amiraslani, F., & Dragovich, D., 2011. Combating desertification in Iran over the last 50 years: An overview of changing approaches. Journal of Environmental Management. 92(1): 1-13. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479710002604

Case Study

Case study details

Estimating the Water Conservation Value of Forest Ecosystems

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: N. Mobarghei, H. Liaghati and A. S. Mohseni
Location(s): Iran (Caspian forest)

Abstract:

Forests are one of the most valuable terrestrial ecosystems that provide variable goods and services. There is no market value for most of forest ecosystem services. One of the most important functions of the forest ecosystems is regulation of surface runoff water in watershed by holding the water and its gradual distribution to the rivers. To calculate the value of this function, it is necessary to estimate the forest contribution in surface water runoff controls, and then it is possible to calculate the value with using economic valuation methods. In this study, height and volume of surface runoff in the current status of the study area (natural forest) was calculated with using Justin experimental methods. Two scenarios have been defined including converting the forest area into degraded forest, and into an eroded pasture. The amount of water that has been hold in each scenario was calculated separately. Research results indicate that converting the study area into degraded forest will make the amount of surface water more than twice, and changed into eroded pasture will make the amount of surface water more than six times; this means reduction in amount of water stored in underground water table. The value of this forest ecosystem function has been estimated by using replacement costs method. The results shows that each hectare of the study area has a value as 102 Thousand Rials in the protection of water resources, compared with a degraded forest, and 464 thousand Rials compared with an eroded pasture. The map of this ecosystem service has been made by using geographic information system.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Mobarghei, N., Liaghati, H., & Mohseni, A.S., 2010. Estimating the water conservation value of forest ecosystems. Presented at the "World Food System - A Contribution from Europe", Sept, 14-16, 2010. Zurich, Switzerland. www.tropentag.de/2010/abstracts/links/Mobarghei_t9w8P4Yt.php


Case studies in Ghana

Case Study

Case study details

Cost Implications of Agricultural Land Degradation in Ghana. IFPRI Discussion Paper 698

Study from: based on data from 1989/1999 and 2000-2004, published in 2007
Authors: X. Diao and D.B. Sarpong
Location(s): Ghana

Abstract:

An economy wide, multimarket model is constructed for Ghana and the effects of agricultural soil erosion on crop yields are explicitly modeled at the subnational regional level for eight main staple crops. The model is used to evaluate the aggregate economic costs of soil erosion by taking into account economy wide linkages between production and consumption, across sectors and agricultural subsectors. To fill a gap in the literature regarding economic cost analysis of soil erosion, this paper also analyzes the poverty implications of land degradation. The model predicts that land degradation reduces agricultural income in Ghana by a total of US$4.2 billion over the period 2006-2015, which is approximately five percent of total agricultural GDP in these ten years. The effect of soil loss on poverty is also significant at the national level, equivalent to a 5.4 percentage point increase in the poverty rate in 2015 compared to the case of no soil loss. Moreover, soil loss causes a slowing of poverty reduction over time in the three northern regions, which currently have the highest poverty rates in the country. Sustainable land management (SLM) is the key to reducing agricultural soil loss. The present findings indicate that through the adoption of conventional SLM practices, the declining trend in land productivity can be reversed, and that use of a combination of conventional and modern SLM practices would generate an aggregate economic benefit of US$6.4 billion over the period 2006-2015. SLM practices would therefore significantly reduce poverty in Ghana, particularly in the three northern regions.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Diao X., & Sarpong D.B., 2007. Cost implications of agricultural land degradation in Ghana. IFPRI Discussion Paper 698. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C.

Case Study

Case study details

Links between Economic Liberalization and Rural Resource Degradation in the Developing Regions

Study from: 1999-2000, based on data from 1965-1995 in Ghana and 1970-1985 in Mexico, published in 2000
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Ghana, Mexico

Abstract:

This paper examines evidence of the effects of economic liberalization and globalization on rural resource degradation in developing countries. The principal resource effects of concern are processes of land use change leading to forestland conversion, degradation and deforestation. The main trends in globalization of interest are trade liberalization and economy-wide reforms in developing countries that have ‘opened up’ the agroindustrial sectors, thus increasing their export-orientation. Such reforms have clearly spurred agroindustrialization, rural development and economic growth, but there is also concern that there may be direct and indirect impacts on rural resource degradation. The direct impacts may occur as increased agricultural activity leads to conversion of forests and increased land degradation from ‘unsustainable’ production methods. However, there may also be indirect effects if agroindustrial development displaces landless, near-landless and rural poor generally, who then migrate to marginal agricultural lands and forest frontier regions. This paper explores these direct and indirect effects of globalization and agroindustrialization on rural resource degradation both generally, plus through examining case study evidence. The paper focuses in particular on the examples of structural adjustment, trade liberalization and agricultural development in Ghana, and maize sector liberalization in Mexico under North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2000. Links between economic liberalization and rural resource degradation in the developing regions. Agricultural Economics. 23: 299-310. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169515000000918

Case Study

Case study details

The Economic Linkages between Rural Poverty and Land Degradation: Some Evidence from Africa

Study from: 1999-2000, published in 2000
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Africa (Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya)

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the potential role of policy in influencing the poverty and land degradation problems facing Africa. This is done through exploring a few case studies, chosen from a broad spectrum of African countries — Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. The first case study examines the comparative returns to the gum arabic agroforestry system cultivated by poor farmers in Northern Sudan, and the role of policies in influencing these returns. The second explores how erratic agricultural pricing policies in Malawi during the 1980s may have distorted the incentives of poor smallholders to adopt less-erosive crops in their farming systems. The third case study illustrates how inappropriate policies and investments can cause displacement of poorer rural groups from their traditional farming and grazing lands, by examining the loss of a major floodplain due to dam building in northern Nigeria. The final two case studies are concerned with policy ‘lessons learned’. The first looks at the impact of a macro-economic adjustment policy — in this case trade liberalization — on farmers’ decisions to expand cultivated area rather than intensify crop production in western Ghana. The final case study examines the role of policy in land management success story in Africa, the Machakos District, Kenya, and explores the critical question of whether this success can be replicated elsewhere in Africa. These case studies serve two important functions. First, they demonstrate how policy analysis can be effective in highlighting key dimensions of the poverty–environment linkages underlying land degradation. Second, they illustrate how both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ policies can affect the economic incentives determining poor rural household’s decisions to conserve or degrade their land.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2000. The economic linkages between rural poverty and land degradation: Some evidence from Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 82: 355-370. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880900002371

Case Study

Case study details

The Newmont Ghana case: restoring land, biodiversity and local communities

Study from: ongoing, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): Ghana (Newmont)

Abstract:

The mining industry causes severe land degradation for the local community, affecting for example their agricultural land and water. In Ghana, Newmont addresses erosion issues for example through educational demonstrations while at the same time assisting farmers near their mine to find a beneficial use for the invasive York tree, which is a nuisance to agricultural production.

Full reference of the paper/report:

WBCSD, 2013. Supporting local economic growth in Ghana: Newmont. www.wbcsd.org/pages/edocument/edocumentdetails.aspx. International Finance Corporation. Ahafo Gold Mine, Ghana – Newmont's Return to Africa Continues a Long-Term Relationship. www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/industry_ext_content/ifc_external_corporate_site/industries/oil,+gas+and+mining/mining/mining_case_studies_ahafo


Case studies in Zimbabwe

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Rhino Conservation in a Land-Use Context within the Region

Study from: 2005, published in 2005
Authors: A. Spenceley and J. Barnes
Location(s): South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Botswana and Zambia

Abstract:

In December 2004 IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa commissioned an economic analysis of rhino conservation in southern Africa. The aim of the analysis was to explore the rationale for regarding rhino as "flagship species" in terms of: The extent to which they might “add value" to existing wildlife operations in state and private areas; The extent to which their protection and monitoring needs might confer blanket protection for other wildlife components that might be vulnerable to human pressures (notably poaching, and including the converse possibility, that rhino may attract poachers into an area where other wildlife is then poached); The extent to they might contribute to community-based tourism and thereby to rural livelihoods, including comment on the opportunities for "direct incentives" payments to landholders or communities who ensure breeding opportunities for this species; The extent to which, in view of the above, they might be catalytic to land-use changes that entail a move towards wildlife production from alternative land-uses such as livestock production. Economic analyses were to concentrate on market values of relevant goods and services rather than non-use values, and to outline the issues and implications of consumptive uses of rhino within the SADC region. The analysis was essentially a pilot study that was designed to achieve an initial general insight into economic issues surrounding black and white rhino in southern Africa. Therefore rather than providing a comparative analysis between sites, or longitudinal evaluations, the study is largely descriptive for one or two case study sites within each part of the analysis. Where the availability of data has allowed, economic scenario analyses have been performed to generate realistic predictions for revenue generation in the future for enterprises and reserves that support rhino populations. In addition to presenting economic data regarding rhino around southern Africa, the discussion attempts to outline the issues and implications of consumptive and non-consumptive use of rhinos within the SADC region. The study considered whether rhino added value to wildlife operations in state and private areas by evaluating revenue generating activities and costs associated with rhino in South Africa and Namibia. The evaluation concluded that both black and white rhino provide a net benefit to both state and private protected areas through both consumptive and non-consumptive use. Considering the development of conservancies in Namibia and Zimbabwe, rhino have played a pivotal role in motivating land-use change. In Namibia the community-based natural resource management program embraces a major portion of all communal lands in the country, so that large areas are now allocated to wildlife uses, alongside livestock. In Zimbabwe financial benefits associated with the presence of rhino on private land catalysed the change in use from livestock to wildlife. A series of factors combined to bring about this change, which included an enabling political environment and legislation, support by WWF and appropriate financial assistance, the unsuitability of the habitat for livestock production and co-operation between neighbouring landowners. Both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of rhino have the potential to generate significant amounts of economic income and to contribute to the livelihoods of rural people. As land uses, they tend to be complementary and not mutually exclusive. This and other studies have shown that combinations of both non-consumptive and consumptive uses will generate maximum benefits. To provide the incentives needed for massive investment in rhino conservation, all possible uses should be explored for rhino.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Spencely, A., & Barnes, J., 2005. Economic analysis of rhino conservation in a land-use context region. SADC Regional Programme for Rhino Conservation. Harare, Zimbabwe. anna.spenceley.co.uk/files/Spenceley%20&%20Barnes.pdf


Case studies in Swaziland

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Rhino Conservation in a Land-Use Context within the Region

Study from: 2005, published in 2005
Authors: A. Spenceley and J. Barnes
Location(s): South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Botswana and Zambia

Abstract:

In December 2004 IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa commissioned an economic analysis of rhino conservation in southern Africa. The aim of the analysis was to explore the rationale for regarding rhino as "flagship species" in terms of: The extent to which they might “add value" to existing wildlife operations in state and private areas; The extent to which their protection and monitoring needs might confer blanket protection for other wildlife components that might be vulnerable to human pressures (notably poaching, and including the converse possibility, that rhino may attract poachers into an area where other wildlife is then poached); The extent to they might contribute to community-based tourism and thereby to rural livelihoods, including comment on the opportunities for "direct incentives" payments to landholders or communities who ensure breeding opportunities for this species; The extent to which, in view of the above, they might be catalytic to land-use changes that entail a move towards wildlife production from alternative land-uses such as livestock production. Economic analyses were to concentrate on market values of relevant goods and services rather than non-use values, and to outline the issues and implications of consumptive uses of rhino within the SADC region. The analysis was essentially a pilot study that was designed to achieve an initial general insight into economic issues surrounding black and white rhino in southern Africa. Therefore rather than providing a comparative analysis between sites, or longitudinal evaluations, the study is largely descriptive for one or two case study sites within each part of the analysis. Where the availability of data has allowed, economic scenario analyses have been performed to generate realistic predictions for revenue generation in the future for enterprises and reserves that support rhino populations. In addition to presenting economic data regarding rhino around southern Africa, the discussion attempts to outline the issues and implications of consumptive and non-consumptive use of rhinos within the SADC region. The study considered whether rhino added value to wildlife operations in state and private areas by evaluating revenue generating activities and costs associated with rhino in South Africa and Namibia. The evaluation concluded that both black and white rhino provide a net benefit to both state and private protected areas through both consumptive and non-consumptive use. Considering the development of conservancies in Namibia and Zimbabwe, rhino have played a pivotal role in motivating land-use change. In Namibia the community-based natural resource management program embraces a major portion of all communal lands in the country, so that large areas are now allocated to wildlife uses, alongside livestock. In Zimbabwe financial benefits associated with the presence of rhino on private land catalysed the change in use from livestock to wildlife. A series of factors combined to bring about this change, which included an enabling political environment and legislation, support by WWF and appropriate financial assistance, the unsuitability of the habitat for livestock production and co-operation between neighbouring landowners. Both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of rhino have the potential to generate significant amounts of economic income and to contribute to the livelihoods of rural people. As land uses, they tend to be complementary and not mutually exclusive. This and other studies have shown that combinations of both non-consumptive and consumptive uses will generate maximum benefits. To provide the incentives needed for massive investment in rhino conservation, all possible uses should be explored for rhino.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Spencely, A., & Barnes, J., 2005. Economic analysis of rhino conservation in a land-use context region. SADC Regional Programme for Rhino Conservation. Harare, Zimbabwe. anna.spenceley.co.uk/files/Spenceley%20&%20Barnes.pdf


Case studies in Malawi

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Rhino Conservation in a Land-Use Context within the Region

Study from: 2005, published in 2005
Authors: A. Spenceley and J. Barnes
Location(s): South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Botswana and Zambia

Abstract:

In December 2004 IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa commissioned an economic analysis of rhino conservation in southern Africa. The aim of the analysis was to explore the rationale for regarding rhino as "flagship species" in terms of: The extent to which they might “add value" to existing wildlife operations in state and private areas; The extent to which their protection and monitoring needs might confer blanket protection for other wildlife components that might be vulnerable to human pressures (notably poaching, and including the converse possibility, that rhino may attract poachers into an area where other wildlife is then poached); The extent to they might contribute to community-based tourism and thereby to rural livelihoods, including comment on the opportunities for "direct incentives" payments to landholders or communities who ensure breeding opportunities for this species; The extent to which, in view of the above, they might be catalytic to land-use changes that entail a move towards wildlife production from alternative land-uses such as livestock production. Economic analyses were to concentrate on market values of relevant goods and services rather than non-use values, and to outline the issues and implications of consumptive uses of rhino within the SADC region. The analysis was essentially a pilot study that was designed to achieve an initial general insight into economic issues surrounding black and white rhino in southern Africa. Therefore rather than providing a comparative analysis between sites, or longitudinal evaluations, the study is largely descriptive for one or two case study sites within each part of the analysis. Where the availability of data has allowed, economic scenario analyses have been performed to generate realistic predictions for revenue generation in the future for enterprises and reserves that support rhino populations. In addition to presenting economic data regarding rhino around southern Africa, the discussion attempts to outline the issues and implications of consumptive and non-consumptive use of rhinos within the SADC region. The study considered whether rhino added value to wildlife operations in state and private areas by evaluating revenue generating activities and costs associated with rhino in South Africa and Namibia. The evaluation concluded that both black and white rhino provide a net benefit to both state and private protected areas through both consumptive and non-consumptive use. Considering the development of conservancies in Namibia and Zimbabwe, rhino have played a pivotal role in motivating land-use change. In Namibia the community-based natural resource management program embraces a major portion of all communal lands in the country, so that large areas are now allocated to wildlife uses, alongside livestock. In Zimbabwe financial benefits associated with the presence of rhino on private land catalysed the change in use from livestock to wildlife. A series of factors combined to bring about this change, which included an enabling political environment and legislation, support by WWF and appropriate financial assistance, the unsuitability of the habitat for livestock production and co-operation between neighbouring landowners. Both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of rhino have the potential to generate significant amounts of economic income and to contribute to the livelihoods of rural people. As land uses, they tend to be complementary and not mutually exclusive. This and other studies have shown that combinations of both non-consumptive and consumptive uses will generate maximum benefits. To provide the incentives needed for massive investment in rhino conservation, all possible uses should be explored for rhino.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Spencely, A., & Barnes, J., 2005. Economic analysis of rhino conservation in a land-use context region. SADC Regional Programme for Rhino Conservation. Harare, Zimbabwe. anna.spenceley.co.uk/files/Spenceley%20&%20Barnes.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

The Economic Linkages between Rural Poverty and Land Degradation: Some Evidence from Africa

Study from: 1999-2000, published in 2000
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Africa (Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya)

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the potential role of policy in influencing the poverty and land degradation problems facing Africa. This is done through exploring a few case studies, chosen from a broad spectrum of African countries — Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. The first case study examines the comparative returns to the gum arabic agroforestry system cultivated by poor farmers in Northern Sudan, and the role of policies in influencing these returns. The second explores how erratic agricultural pricing policies in Malawi during the 1980s may have distorted the incentives of poor smallholders to adopt less-erosive crops in their farming systems. The third case study illustrates how inappropriate policies and investments can cause displacement of poorer rural groups from their traditional farming and grazing lands, by examining the loss of a major floodplain due to dam building in northern Nigeria. The final two case studies are concerned with policy ‘lessons learned’. The first looks at the impact of a macro-economic adjustment policy — in this case trade liberalization — on farmers’ decisions to expand cultivated area rather than intensify crop production in western Ghana. The final case study examines the role of policy in land management success story in Africa, the Machakos District, Kenya, and explores the critical question of whether this success can be replicated elsewhere in Africa. These case studies serve two important functions. First, they demonstrate how policy analysis can be effective in highlighting key dimensions of the poverty–environment linkages underlying land degradation. Second, they illustrate how both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ policies can affect the economic incentives determining poor rural household’s decisions to conserve or degrade their land.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2000. The economic linkages between rural poverty and land degradation: Some evidence from Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 82: 355-370. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880900002371


Case studies in

Case Study

Case study details

Economic and ecological efficiency of soil wind erosion control methods: example of Ukrainian Western Polissya

Study from: 2015, published in 2014
Authors: Warren Priest; Antonia Schraml; Hekuran Koka; Anatoliy Kucher; Lesya Kucher; Iryna Kazakova
Location(s): Ukraine

Abstract:

Approximately 70 % of Ukraine occupied by agricultural lands, most of them involved in extensive technologies of agriculture production systems. Climate changes provoke dust storms even in regions with “low” soil erosion risk status before. In both cases appears vivid need to control erosion or prevent it in the beginning, optimize agricultural activity and improve conditions for the preservation and renewal of soil. In the Southeast and Southern parts of Ukraine there are droughts, dry winds (25-30 days per year), and occasional dust storms (3-8 days per year) during spring and autumn. The duration of dust storms varies from a few minutes to a few days. Even in Polissya (Forest Area), the most part of which is covered by forests and shrubbery and where portion of cultivated lands is relatively small, raising dust from dry turfs take place even with such wind velocity as 2-3 m/s. Dust emission by wind erosion is the largest source of aerosols, which directly or indirectly influences the atmospheric radiation balance and hence global climatic variations (Shao, 2000). The annual wind erosion manifestations take place in south-eastern and eastern districts of Ukraine and cover the territory up to 5 millions ha, which are the main districts of grain crops production (Dolgilevich, 1967). According to average annual data, wind erosion processes appears once per 1.5-2.0 years period as dust storms, local processes appears annually.

To compensate the losses of organic matter and nutrients on the alienated lands because of deflation, several options were planned:

1) organic fertilizers in the form of litter manure;

2) fertilization: ammophos - to recover phosphorus and kalimag-30 - to restore potassium;

3) changing direction of economic use of land - cessation of grazing grasslands by overseeding creation of perennial grasses.

 

Full reference of the paper/report:

Priest, W., Schraml, A., Koka, H., Kucher, A., Kucher, L., Kazakova, I. 2015. Economic and ecological efficiency of soil wind erosion control methods: example of Ukrainian Western Polissya. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in Namibia

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Efficiency and Incentives for Change within Namibia's Community Wildlife Use Initiatives

Study from: 2001, published in 2002
Authors: J. Barnes, J. MacGregor, L.C. Weaver
Location(s): Namibia

Abstract:

Five community wildlife conservation and utilization initiatives, or conservancies, on communal land in Namibia were appraised to determine economic and financial worth. Conservancies are economically efficient and able to contribute positively to national income and the development process. They also provide a channel for the capture of international donor grants (wildlife non-use values) as income, and generate attractive financial returns for communities. Donor grants are very important catalysts in promoting land use change in conservancies. Ability to generate income from tourism is important. Flexibility and adaptability in design are key factors, ensuring effective rural development and conservation.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barnes, J., MacGregor, J., & Weaver, L.C., 2002. Economic efficiency and incentives for change within Namibia's Community Wildlife Initiatives. World Development. 30(4): 667-681. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X01001346

Case Study

Case study details

The Economic Value of Namibia’s Protected Area System: A Case for Increased Investment

Study from: based on data from 1980-2010, published in 2010
Authors: J.K. Turpie, J. Barnes, G. Lange and R. Martin
Location(s): Namibia

Abstract:

This study was commissioned by the UNDP/GEF project on Strengthening the Protected Areas Network in Namibia. The project aims to safeguard biodiversity conservation and enhance the contribution of protected areas to Namibia’s development process. The main aims of this study were to describe the economic value of the parks and investigate the economic implications of increased investment in the system.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Turpie, J.K. Barnes, J., Lange, G., & Martin, R., 2010. The economic value of Namibia’s protected area system: A case for increased investment. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Windhoek, Namibia. www.the-eis.com/data/RDPs/RDP73.pdf.


Case studies in Kenya

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Valuation of Sheep Genetic Resources: Implications for Sustainable Utilization

Study from: 2006-2007, published in 2008
Authors: I. Omondi, I. Baltenweck, A.G. Drucker, G. Obare and K.K. Zander
Location(s): Kenya (Marsabit district)

Abstract:

Sheep, recognised as one of the important livestock species especially in the semi-arid tropics with high genetic resource potentials, can be exploited through sustainable utilization in order to improve livestock keepers’ livelihoods. This study presents the evaluation of the economic values of sheep genetic resources (SGR) in terms of the important non-market, traits embedded in sheep and how this information can be utilised to improve livelihoods in semi-arid regions. The results obtained from mixed logit models results derived from stated choice data collected from 157 respondents in the semi-arid Marsabit district of Kenya reveal that disease resistance is the most highly valued trait whose resultant increment results into a welfare improvement of up to KShs.1537. Drought tolerance and fat deposition traits were found to be implicitly valued at KShs.694 and 738 respectively. The results further point out that for livestock stakeholders to effectively improve the livelihoods of poor livestock-keepers, development strategies for improving the management and/or utilisation of SGR in terms of drought tolerance, should not only be tailor made to target regions that are frequently devastated by drought but should also succeed other strategies or efforts that would first lead to the improvement of producers’ economic status.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Omondi, I., Baltenweck, I., Drucker, A.G., Obare, G., Zander K.K., 2008. Economic valuation of sheep genetic resources: Implications for sustainable utilization. Tropical Animal Health and Production.40: 615–626. link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11250-008-9140-7

Case Study

Case study details

Environmental Valuation in Developing Countries: The Recreational Value of Wildlife

Study from: based on data from 1991, published in 1994
Authors: S. Navrud and E.D. Mungatana
Location(s): Kenya (Lake Nakura National Park)

Abstract:

Few environmental valuation studies have been carried out in developing countries. This study shows that the Travel Cost and the Contingent Valuation methods can be successfully applied to value natural resources in developing countries. These two independent methods were used to estimate the recreational value of wildlife viewing, which is a valid, but very conservative, estimate of the total economic value of the wildlife species. The annual recreational value of wildlife viewing in Lake Nakuru National Park in Kenya was found to be 7.5-15 million USD. The flamingos accounted for more than 1/3 of the value. Recognizing that this is only one of many parks in Kenya, and that wildlife viewing is becoming an important part of the global trend of increasing ecotourism, this clearly shows that sustainable management of wildlife resources could provide a very significant and much needed revenue source for developing countries in the future. The challenge for the developing countries is to find ways to realize this economic potential, which also secures the preservation of wildlife.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Navrud, S., & Mungatana, E.D., 1994. Environmental valuation in developing countries: The recreational value of wildlife viewing. Ecological Economics. 11: 135-151. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0921800994900248

Case Study

Case study details

Estimating the Environmental Costs of Soil Erosion at Multiple Scales in Kenya Using Emergy Synthesis

Study from: 2004 (based on data from 1976-2002), published in 2006
Authors: M. J. Cohen, M. T. Brown and K. D. Shepherd
Location(s): Kenya

Abstract:

The intrinsic value of soil to national, regional and local agroecological and economic productivity in sub-Saharan Africa is not adequately manifest in financial planning and decision making, challenging long-term sustainability as that resource degrades. While efforts to internalize the external costs of soil erosion in monetary units are available in the literature, we offer an alternative approach based on emergy synthesis, which enumerates the value of soil based on the environmental work required to produce it rather than based on surveys or derived pricing techniques. Emergy synthesis integrates all flows within a system of coupled economic and environmental work in common biophysical units (embodied solar energy or solar emjoules—sej), facilitating direct comparisons between natural and financial capital. Insight into long-term sustainability of human economic production and its basis in natural capital stocks is achieved via a suite of emergy-based indices. Our objective was to provide context for the magnitude of soil erosion losses within the larger resource basis of the Kenyan economy at three scales. Our results suggest that erosion losses at the national scale (4.5E21 sej/yr) are equal in magnitude to national electricity production or agricultural exports (equivalent to $ 390 million annually or 3.8% of GDP). This significant hidden, long-term cost is magnified in the selected district economies. In particular, in Nyando district (a densely populated rural district in western Kenya) we estimate that soil erosion represents over 14% of total emergy flows. The soil intensity of agriculture (SIA = agricultural yield/soil loss, both in emergy units) of Nyando (2.25) illustrates a severely marginalized agricultural sector in comparison with the nation as a whole (SIA = 7.56) or other nations (SIAUSA = 81.9, SIABrazil = 15.6). Soil loss measurements across land uses typical in western Kenya allowed emergy evaluation of differential costs and benefits; soil loss represented between 12 and 62% of total emergy use (subsistence agriculture SIA = 8.13, communal rangeland SIA = 1.62). By quantifying the ecological costs of soil erosion in units directly comparable with flows in other sectors of the economic system, we provide a baseline measure of sustainability against which appropriate investment (i.e., scaled to problem magnitude, targeted to hot-spots) in soil conservation may be evaluated.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Cohen, M. J., Brown, M.T., & Shepherd, K.D., 2006. Estimating the environmental costs of soil erosion at multiple scales in Kenya using emergy synthesis. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment. 114(2-4): 249-269. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880905005268

Case Study

Case study details

Harnessing Pastoralists; Indigenous Knowledge for Rangeland Management: Three African Case Studies

Study from: 2012, published in 2012
Authors: G. Oba
Location(s): Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda

Abstract:

This article reports a rapid method for rangeland assessments in Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda by harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous knowledge among the Orma, Afar and Karamojong pastoralists. The study developed and evaluated a methodological framework for conducting joint assessments with pastoralist range scouts. The framework has four components: selection of ecological and anthropogenic indicators, indicator integration, evaluation of indicator outcomes and regional decision-making systems. The feedbacks between different components were used for information transfer. The framework was applied to the three case studies (using participatory methods). The scouts conducted rangeland assessments using ecological and anthropogenic indicators. Soils, and then vegetation, and finally livestock production were used as the main indicators for understanding rangeland degradation. In addition, pastoralists used key-plant species to assess landscape grazing suitability and soils to assess landscape-grazing potential. The latter is critical for evaluating potential stocking densities that each landscape could support during the wet or dry grazing seasons. For anthropogenic indicators herders used milk yield, body hair condition, weight gain and mating frequency to assess livestock production performances. Pastoralist scouts assessed rangeland degradation and trends using historical knowledge of the landscapes. The findings confirmed comparable knowledge systems among the three pastoral communities. The methods can be applied across regions where pastoralism still dominates the rural economy. The system of indigenous rangeland assessments and monitoring could rapidly provide information needed by policy makers. Harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous rangeland knowledge has implications for participatory research, for verifying and testing methods, as well as for sharing information in order to promote practical rangeland management.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Oba, G., 2012. Harnessing pastoralists' indigenous knowledge for rangeland management: Three African case studies. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2:1. www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/pdf/2041-7136-2-1.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Livestock Marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A Review of Policies and Practice

Study from: based on data from 1998-2008, published in 2008
Authors: Y. Aklilu
Location(s): Ethiopia and Kenya

Abstract:

The last few years have witnessed a renewed interest in the export of live animals and meat from Kenya and Ethiopia. In both cases, the private sector has taken the lead in initiating or advocating for the revival of the export business, prompting the respective governments to pay attention to the potentials of livestock trade. In Kenya, this move was enhanced by the formation of a new Ministry for Livestock and Fisheries. This has led to the re-operationalization of the Kenya Meat Commission, new plans to set up satellite abattoirs in strategic locations along the northern corridor, innovative approaches to improve dilapidated market infrastructure and a continued interest in addressing sanitary requirements related to livestock and meat trade. Kenya has also incorporated a livestock marketing policy in the national livestock policy document (still in draft). Prior to this, interested groups such as the Kenya Livestock Marketing Council, initially supported by Arid Land Resource Management Project, had set up various district- based livestock marketing groups and played a major role in raising awareness and establishing linkages between producers and potential importers. During the last ten years in Ethiopia, the private sector has been active in setting up export abattoirs and also in the exporting of live animals. Government support to this sector was provided through the Livestock Marketing Authority, under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development at the time, forming exporter’s associations, identifying potential export markets, facilitating export procedures and so on. Bilateral programs specifically designed to address sanitary issues were also on the fore. An increasing number of donors (USAID and EU in particular), FAO and NGOs were also engaged in supporting livestock marketing from pastoral areas either through national, regional, cross-border or area-based programs. Some of these programs have been or are being implemented through regional organizations such as the Africa Union/Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and the Intergovernmental Authority for Development , and some through national based institutions or as stand-alone projects. Many of the NGOs operate at the local level with a few exceptions that operate at the national level. Considering the size of the human population that depends on livestock production in both countries, the development of domestic and export markets is critical to alleviating poverty, raising revenues, and continuing the trend towards more market-orientation. In realization of this potential, both governments are taking some encouraging measures towards promoting the marketing of livestock, specifically from pastoral areas. However, livestock and meat marketing, especially exports, is a complex process. The subsistence production systems in Ethiopia and Kenya cannot compete with commercial producers in Brazil or Australia. International trade barriers (SPS, tariff and non-tariff) impose huge limitations on both countries. Export marketing and promotional strategies in destination countries are almost non-existent. There is no economy of scale to offset costs. In short, the livestock and meat marketing systems are not as efficient nor as streamlined as those of their competitors. Yet, these problems are not insurmountable in the long-term. Some require substantial investments, for example, in animal health and SPS systems, infrastructure and processing facilities. Others may require a combination of institutional and attitudinal changes such as shifting the mode of production to meet what the market demands. Competing in the international market entails acquiring and practicing savvy marketing strategies along with availing the right product on time. Obviously, a public and private sector partnership is crucial to achieving long-term objectives. More importantly, an appropriate policy framework is the pre- requisite for providing an enabling environment for all actors. This paper will look into some policy and operational issues.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Aklilu, Y., 2008. Livestock marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A review of policies and practice. Feinstein International Centre, Addis Ababa. wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/download/attachments/24922042/Livestock+Marketing+in+Kenya+and+Ethiopia+-+Aklilu+2008.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Minimum-data Analysis of Ecosystem Service Supply in Semi-subsistence Agricultural Systems

Study from: 2010 (based on data from Kenya: 1997-2001, and from Senegal: 2001, 2003-2004), published in 2010
Authors: J. M. Antle, B. Diagana, J. J. Stoorvogel and R. O. Valdivia
Location(s): Kenya and Senegal

Abstract:

Antle and Valdivia (2006) proposed a minimum-data (MD) approach to simulate ecosystem service supply curves that can be implemented using readily available secondary data and validated the approach in a case study of soil carbon sequestration in a monoculture wheat system. However, many applications of the MD approach are in developing countries where semi-subsistence systems with multiple production activities are being used and data availability is limited. This paper discusses how MD analysis can be applied to more complex production systems such as semi-subsistence systems with multiple production activities and presents validation analysis for studies of soil carbon sequestration in semi-subsistence farming systems in Kenya and Senegal. Results from these two studies confirm that ecosystem service supply curves based on the MD approach are close approximations to the curves derived from highly detailed data and models and are therefore sufficiently accurate and robust to be used to support policy decision making.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Antle, J.M., Diagana, B., Stoorvogel, J.J., & Valdivia, R.O., 2010. Minimum-data analysis of ecosystem service supply in semi-subsistence agricultural systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 54(4): 601-617. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8489.2010.00511.x/abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Review of the Literature on Pastoral Economics and Marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganada, and Sudan

Study from: 2006, published in 2006
Authors: M. Odhiambo
Location(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan

Abstract:

This is a report to the World Initiative on Sustainable Pastoralism within the framework of its Economics of Pastoralism consultancy, which seeks to collate and document information on economic valuations of pastoralism in the East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, as well as Sudan. We were however not able to gather much data and information about Sudan, with the result that the report is mainly concentrated on the three East African countries. The report confirms the paucity of data about the value of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies, not because that contribution is lacking, but mainly because the analytical framework of these economies does not permit its full appreciation. Even where efforts have been made to collect data, this has been limited to data on livestock and livestock products such as milk, hides and skins sold at national markets. Non-monetised contributions such as manure, draught power, control of bush and weeds, recycling of household waste are not captured or acknowledged. Nor is the contribution that pastoralism makes to the conservation and wildlife-based tourism. At the heart of this inadequate appreciation of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies is a pervasive misperception of pastoralism and pastoralists across the region. Despite the fact that pastoralism is one of the most researched livelihood systems in the world, and that it continues to hold an abiding enchantment especially to Western researchers even today, the perception of pastoralism within policy circles in the region remains clouded by stereotypes and myths. Many think of pastoralism, not as a livelihood system but as a stage in the transition of society from backwardness to modernization. Pastoralists, and in particular, nomadic pastoralists are thus seen as holding on to a livelihood system and practices that are not appropriate to current imperatives of social, cultural and economic change. These perceptions exist at the highest levels of government, and inform and define the type of interventions that governments have for years implemented in pastoral areas, with a view to transforming pastoralism and pastoralists and bringing them to the levels of modernity. These interventions have invariably targeted the livestock component of pastoralism, and sought to transform pastoralists “from being nomadic cattle herders to being settled modern livestock keepers”. It is not surprising that these interventions have invariably failed. They are founded on a poor understanding of the rationale of pastoral livelihood practices and land use. They are topdown and inspired by a desire to civilize pastoralists. Worse still, the interventions are premised on a perception of pastoralists as irrational and pastoralism itself as a problem, associating it with environmental degradation, conflict, and resistance to change. They are informed by the generalization that pastoralism “is constrained by poor animal husbandry, lack of modernization, accumulation of stock beyond carrying capacity and lack of market orientation…”. This study is based on a desk review of published material that we were able to unearth in libraries and on the Internet. We have already alluded to the fact that we were unable to obtain much on Sudan. However, even with respect to the other three countries, there are substantial information gaps in so far as the economics of pastoralism is concerned.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Odhiambo, M., 2006. Review of the literature on pastoral economics and marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and the Sudan. Report prepared for the World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism, IUCN EARO RECONCILE, Kenya. cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/eastern_africa_reports.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

The Contribution of Forest Products to Dryland Household Economy: The case of Kiang’ombe hill forest, Kenya

Study from: 2011, published in 2011
Authors: G. W. Ngugi, L. E. Newton, A. M. Muasya
Location(s): Kenya (Kiang’ombe hill forest)

Abstract:

An integrated approach of participatory rural appraisal, participatory environmental valuation (PEV), household survey, group discussions and forest walks with knowledgeable people was used in an ethnobotanical survey of Kiang'ombe hill forest in Mbeere District of Kenya. Ten forest uses were identified with the highest dependence being in the supply of building materials and medicine, the latter having the highest average annual household value of KSh. 2953 (US$47). The average annual household forest value was calculated at KSh. 16,175.6 (US$256.80), accounting for 55.4% of household income. Use of PEV in Kiang'ombe, where there were no formal records of forest use, was important in assigning monetary value to biodiversity elements essential for survival that were assumed to be free for the taking. The assigned monetary value gives weight to otherwise non-monetary values recognized by local communities but ignored because they do not enter formal markets. PEV is one of the recommended methods for estimation of forest resources and value in a non-cash economy.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Ngugi, G.W., Newton, L.E., & Muasya, A.M., 2011. The contribution of forest products to dryland household economy: The case of Kiang’ombe hill forest, Kenya. Ethnobotany Research and Applications.9: 163-180. lib-ojs3.lib.sfu.ca/index.php/era/article/view/197/320

Case Study

Case study details

The Economic Linkages between Rural Poverty and Land Degradation: Some Evidence from Africa

Study from: 1999-2000, published in 2000
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Africa (Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya)

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the potential role of policy in influencing the poverty and land degradation problems facing Africa. This is done through exploring a few case studies, chosen from a broad spectrum of African countries — Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. The first case study examines the comparative returns to the gum arabic agroforestry system cultivated by poor farmers in Northern Sudan, and the role of policies in influencing these returns. The second explores how erratic agricultural pricing policies in Malawi during the 1980s may have distorted the incentives of poor smallholders to adopt less-erosive crops in their farming systems. The third case study illustrates how inappropriate policies and investments can cause displacement of poorer rural groups from their traditional farming and grazing lands, by examining the loss of a major floodplain due to dam building in northern Nigeria. The final two case studies are concerned with policy ‘lessons learned’. The first looks at the impact of a macro-economic adjustment policy — in this case trade liberalization — on farmers’ decisions to expand cultivated area rather than intensify crop production in western Ghana. The final case study examines the role of policy in land management success story in Africa, the Machakos District, Kenya, and explores the critical question of whether this success can be replicated elsewhere in Africa. These case studies serve two important functions. First, they demonstrate how policy analysis can be effective in highlighting key dimensions of the poverty–environment linkages underlying land degradation. Second, they illustrate how both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ policies can affect the economic incentives determining poor rural household’s decisions to conserve or degrade their land.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2000. The economic linkages between rural poverty and land degradation: Some evidence from Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 82: 355-370. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880900002371

Case Study

Case study details

The Future for Wildlife on Kenya's Rangelands: An Economic Perspective (Chapter 14)

Study from: 2009, published in 2009
Authors: M. Norton-Griffins and M.Y. Said
Location(s): Kenya

Abstract:

Kenya's rangelands are undergoing a fundamental transformation in land use from nomadic, transhumant pastoralism to a more sedentary agro-pastoralism. This process of transformation is cascading down the rainfall gradient and is proceeding faster, and is more advanced, in the areas of higher agricultural potential. This transformation is being driven by macro and micro economic forces within the Kenyan economy which scarcely existed even 25 years ago. At the macroeconomic scale both domestic (primarily urban) and international markets are expanding, there are real gains in producer prices, ever increasing opportunities for off-farm jobs and investment, and a wider availability and choice of goods and services. At the micro-economic level are improved market and transport networks, improved information networks about market conditions, and improved access to financial services. All of these create incentives for pastoral landholders to increase returns to land by investing in land development and production. Even greater incentives are created by the clear differentials between the returns to agricultural, livestock and wildlife production which are so great that the benefits from agricultural production overwhelm those from either livestock or wildlife, even in the areas of highest use by wildlife tourists. Over half of the most productive rangelands in Kenya, which used to hold the great majority of wildlife, are now supporting agricultural production with an associated rapid evolution of property rights from large land parcels under communal or group ownership to small land parcels under private ownership. While livestock seem to be generally absorbed within the expanding agricultural and settlement frontier wildlife are being displaced and eliminated. Current conservation policy in Kenya, as evidenced by the new Wildlife Act (2007), demonstrates little awareness by the Government of Kenya of either the magnitude of these problems or of any real commitment to redress them.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Norton-Griffiths, M., & Said, M.Y., 2009. The future for wildlife on Kenya's rangelands: An economic perspective, in Wild Rangelands: Conserving wildlife while maintaining livestock in semi-arid ecosystems (eds; du Toit, J.T., Kock, R. and Deutsch, J.C.), John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444317091.ch14/summary

Case Study

Case study details

The Lake Victoria Ecosystem: A deeper look into its true worth

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: Benson Rwegoshora Bashange; Chanoine Marie; Franz Vockinger; Janek Toepper; Leah-Rehema Murerwa; Rose Anarfiwaah Oppong; Yacoubou Kadade
Location(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

Abstract:

Full reference of the paper/report:

Rwegoshora Bashange, B., Chanoine, M., Vockinger, F., Toepper, J., Murerwa, L.R., Anarfiwaah Oppong, R., Kadade, Y. 2014. The Lake Victoria Ecosystem: A deeper look into its true worth. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

The Role of Varietal Attributes on Adoption of Improved Seed Varieties. The Case of Sorghum in Kenya

Study from: , published in 2012
Authors: A.G. Timu, R.M. Mulwa, J. Okello and M. Kamua
Location(s): Kenya

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of variety attributes on adoption of improved sorghum varieties in Kenya. Using data from 140 farmers, the paper uses a multivariate probit to identify variety-specific drivers of adoption. The results on the perception of farmers variety attributes show that improved varieties had desirable production and marketing attributes while the local varieties were perceived to have the best consumption attributes. Evidence further indicates that the major sorghum variety attributes driving rapid adoption are taste, drought tolerance, yield, ease of cooking and the variety’s ability to fetch a price premium. Early maturity, a major focus of research has no effect on adoption. The findings of the study imply that, while developing improved seed varieties, breeders should also focus on non yield attributes like taste and ease of cooking. Secondly, it is important that both producers and consumers of sorghum be involved in the seed evaluation process.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Timu, A.G., Mulwa, R.M., Okello, J., & Kamua, M., 2012. The role of varietal attributes on adoption of improved seed varieties. The case of sorghum in Kenya. Selected Paper prepared for presentation at the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association’s 2012 AAEA Annual Meeting, August 12 - 14, 2012 Seattle, Washington. ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/123301/2/AAEA%20paper%20Draft%201.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Total Economic Valuation of Kenyan Pastoralism

Study from: based on data from 1997-2006, published in 2007
Authors: J. Davies
Location(s): Kenya

Abstract:

This economic valuation report uses data collected through another IUCN project, “Kenya’s Drylands: wastelands or an undervalued economic resource”. The rationale behind this report is that pastoralism appears to be routinely undervalued, and this undervaluation allows the promulgation of inappropriate policies. Undervaluation of the livestock production system allows the promotion of alternative production systems that may be economically inferior, and that place greater costs on the environment. As a result, poverty and environmental degradation are unnecessarily commonplace in the drylands of Kenya. This study attempts to draw attention to the multiple values of pastoralism, including those which are measurable in monetary terms and those which are not. It aims to illustrate that pastoralism provides numerous services that are not normally quantified and are thus ignored in development planning. It also aims to draw together those values which are sometimes measured, such as meat and milk production, but yet still fail to influence planning and policy, perhaps because the values are misrepresented or the data is not disaggregated. This report presents a wide range of values that can be attributed to pastoralism, although these are not necessarily additive: some represent asset values, others represent the value of productive inputs or outputs or non-productive outputs. Ultimately, there may be many reasons why policy makers or development planners are uncomfortable with the concept of mobile pastoralism, and the arguments of economic non-viability or irrationality may not rest on empirical foundations, but rather on received wisdom or even prejudice. This report highlights the strong economic rationale of pastoralism, the significant contribution it makes to Kenya’s economy and the many goods and services of pastoralism that are routinely over-looked. It recommends that these values be given much greater consideration, or planners risk substituting mobile livestock production in the drylands with something inferior, incurring a tremendous opportunity cost.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Davies, J., 2007. Total economic valuation of kenyan pastoralism. World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism. Global Environment Facility, UNEP, and IUCN. cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/kenya_tev.pdf


Case studies in Sri Lanka

Case Study

Case study details

Estimating the User Cost of Soil Erosion in Tea Smallholdings in Sri Lanka

Study from: 1999-2000, published in 2001
Authors: G.Herath
Location(s): Sri Lanka

Abstract:

Soil erosion in developing countries is a widespread problem causing considerable economic damage. It still remains an intractable problem in many countries. Available research findings on costs of soil erosion indicate them to be high. Soil erosion continues to be a problem due to the difficulties of estimating the economic damages and attendant difficulties in developing effective control policies. This paper considers soil to be a nonrenewable resource and estimates the marginal user costs using a yield damage function. Results indicate user costs to be low for individual farms. The low user costs are due to some of the assumptions made with respect to a number of parameters such as prices of tea, costs, and technological developments. The results also indicate that marginal user costs are sensitive to prices, soil depth and soil loss.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Herath, G., 2001. Estimating the user cost of soil erosion in tea smallholdings in Sri Lanka. Australasian Journal of Regional Studies. 7(1): 97-111. anzrsai.org/assets/Uploads/PublicationChapter/192-Herath.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Small Scale Environment Projects and Their Impact on Minimizing Land Degradation in Sri Lanka: A Case Study of Community Development Centre, Aranayake

Study from: 2007, published in 2011
Authors: D.Jayasinghe and R. Bandara
Location(s): Sri Lanka (Aranayke, Kegalle district)

Abstract:

Land degradation is considered an important issue that has to be addressed in the world today. In Sri Lanka, efforts taken to minimize the irreversible effects of land degradation are considered vital. Little study has been done on the impact of soil conservation methods used by farmers to minimize soil erosion. In this study it was attempted to evaluate the impacts of soil conservation methods used by farmers in their home gardens and the usefulness of the grants given to community groups to engage in soil conservation in their respective home gardens.

The community group selected for this study is Community Development Centre, Aranayake located in the district of Kegalle whose main objective is to conserve indigenous varieties of tubers whilst using soil conservation methods in the respective home gardens. In this research a questionnaire was used as a survey method from a sample of 104 beneficiaries of a population of 150 farmers. The data presented in this paper were collected between a span of one month coinciding with the completion of the project.

The findings point that the beneficiaries are mainly females (91%) in the age of over 40 years (69%) and the majority (53%) have studied up to GCE O/Levels. Moreover the beneficiary in general has only less than an acre of home garden to cultivate and 82% of them have legal ownership to the land as it is owned by themselves or a family member. The soil conservation methods they have primary used are the SALT [Sloping Agriculture Land Technology] method (60%), Lock and Spill Drains (56%), Stone Hedges (30%). In regard to the soil conservation practices 87% of the respondents say that their income has increased and 93% say that the quality of sol has increased after using the above soil conservation methods. Moreover more than 80% respondents say that there has been a 50% and above increase in harvest, 90% of the respondents say that soil erosion is less and 82% say that there is an increase in land to cultivate after the introduction of soil conservation practices.

In regards to the findings of the usefulness of grants given to beneficiaries, 86% of the respondents say that they have received direct benefits from the work of CDC, Aranayake with regard to soil conservation and home garden development. 93% say that they will continue following the use of these methods even if they do not continue to receive external funding after the first introduction of soil conservation methods as there is an increase in income and increase in soil quality. Moreover, according to the findings there is a replication of these grants as it is observed from the respondents that 71% of farmers that are not part of the beneficiary programme started using the above soils conservation methods as a results of this programme. Small grants are proven to be effective by the beneficiaries as they observe that they are easily accessible to the grass root level (74%), personal (63%), results are visible (63%), and they directly benefit the community (62%).

Based on this study it can be concluded that there is a clear possibility of minimizing land degradation problems by forming small groups that receive small scale funding in the form of money, goods, knowledge and services. It is also evident that there is a positive impact to the farmers by using soil conservation methods in their home gardens by way of increased income and improved soil quality. The issue of land degradation has to be dealt at a macro and micro level. From a macro point of view each country has to lay a focus on minimizing land degradation as a policy mandate. From the micro point of view each individual farmer has a role to play in the area of soil conservation. This research suggests that the role that the individual farmer plays is important as not only does it bring about personal benefits but also contributes to the larger efforts of conservation. Therefore small grants given to the farmer for soil conservation initiatives can make a big difference in the world of conservation today.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Jayasinghe, D., & Bandara, R., 2011. Small scale environment projects and their impacts on minimizing land degradation in Sri Lanka: A case study of community development centre, Aranayake. Proceedings Part 1 - Abstracts of Papers, Sixteenth International Forestry and Environment Symposium of the Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayawardenapura, Sri Lanka, Oct 28-29. “Forests for social transformation”, 54-55.


Case studies in Nigeria

Case Study

Case study details

Final Stakeholder Engagement Plan for the Agulu-Nanka Gully Complex Site of Southeastern Nigeria

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Felicia O. Akinyemi; Mirko Kruse
Location(s): Nigeria

Abstract:

As many eroding gullies in Southeast Nigeria are human-induced, it implies that the problem should be highly tractable, hence the need to engage with stakeholders. Most studies conducted on the causes of gully erosion in Southeast Nigeria primarily revolve around the geological properties and proffer solutions that require large-scale engineering efforts with minimal regard to indigenous knowledge. They also deal more with combating gully erosion rather than their prevention and pay little attention to ways to control gully erosion from the perspective of members of the community that are affected by the erosion. The main goal is to examine perspectives of those affected in order to understand the human dimensions of the problem. Potential solutions will be explored, with particular attention to low-cost, community-based approaches that can easily be understood, accepted and implemented by the ‘common man on the street’ so to say.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Akinyemi, F. O., Kruse, M. 2015. Final Stakeholder Engagement Plan for the Agulu-Nanka Gully Complex Site of Southeastern Nigeria. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Stakeholder Engagement Plan for Sustainable Land Management: A Case study of the Niger Delta Oil exploration activities and Environmental Degradation in the Niger Delta Catchment, Federal Republic of Nigeria

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Okello Patrick Owino; Svenja Schoe; Kong Sreyrath; Grace Mbena; Melody Burns
Location(s): Nigeria

Abstract:

The Niger Delta is a wetland area in the south of Nigeria, Africa. Nine states make up the Niger Delta and it covers an area of approximately 70,000 km2, about 7.5% of Nigeria's land mass. Oil was discovered in Nigeria’s largest wetland region around 40 years ago. Oil spills are common in Nigeria; estimated 7,000 spills were recorded between 1970 and 2000. Investments in preventing pollution are poor and spills with thousands of barrels of oil occur every year.

An average of 240,000 barrels of crude oil are spilled in the Niger delta every year, mainly due to unknown causes (31.85%), third party activity (20.74%), and mechanical failure (17.04%). The spills contaminates the surface water, ground water, ambient air, and crops with hydrocarbons, including known carcinogens like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benxo, pyrene, naturally occurring radioactive materials, and trace metals that are further bio accumulated in some food crops.

The delta is home to 20 million people, local indigenous activities and concerns against petroleum giants often result in violent disputes. Local communities are facing problems such as no access to safe drinking water (due to poor sanitation and pollution), poor infrastructure and education. The majority of Delta residents live in poverty and the oil operations affect their traditional livelihoods.

 

Full reference of the paper/report:

Owino, O. P., Schoe, S., Sreyrath, K., Mbena, G., Burns, M. 2015. Stakeholder Engagement Plan for Sustainable Land Management: A Case study of the Niger Delta Oil exploration activities and Environmental Degradation in the Niger Delta Catchment, Federal Republic of Nigeria. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

The Economic Linkages between Rural Poverty and Land Degradation: Some Evidence from Africa

Study from: 1999-2000, published in 2000
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Africa (Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya)

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the potential role of policy in influencing the poverty and land degradation problems facing Africa. This is done through exploring a few case studies, chosen from a broad spectrum of African countries — Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. The first case study examines the comparative returns to the gum arabic agroforestry system cultivated by poor farmers in Northern Sudan, and the role of policies in influencing these returns. The second explores how erratic agricultural pricing policies in Malawi during the 1980s may have distorted the incentives of poor smallholders to adopt less-erosive crops in their farming systems. The third case study illustrates how inappropriate policies and investments can cause displacement of poorer rural groups from their traditional farming and grazing lands, by examining the loss of a major floodplain due to dam building in northern Nigeria. The final two case studies are concerned with policy ‘lessons learned’. The first looks at the impact of a macro-economic adjustment policy — in this case trade liberalization — on farmers’ decisions to expand cultivated area rather than intensify crop production in western Ghana. The final case study examines the role of policy in land management success story in Africa, the Machakos District, Kenya, and explores the critical question of whether this success can be replicated elsewhere in Africa. These case studies serve two important functions. First, they demonstrate how policy analysis can be effective in highlighting key dimensions of the poverty–environment linkages underlying land degradation. Second, they illustrate how both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ policies can affect the economic incentives determining poor rural household’s decisions to conserve or degrade their land.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2000. The economic linkages between rural poverty and land degradation: Some evidence from Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 82: 355-370. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880900002371


Case studies in Vietnam

Case Study

Case study details

Impacts Of Dykes On Wetland Values in Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta: A Case Study in the Plain of Reeds

Study from: based on surveys in 2006, published in 2007
Authors: T.N. Do
Location(s): Vietnam (Tram Chim National Park, Plain of Reeds/Mekong River Delta)

Abstract:

This study investigates the impact of proposals to reduce the height of dykes in Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta. The proposals are designed to reduce wetland water levels to an environmentally sustainable level; however it has not been clear how this will affect farmers in the region. High dykes currently protect many farms from flooding and allow farmers to grow more food. The study uses the Tram Chim National Park and adjacent areas in the Plain of Reeds as a case study. It investigates the potential impact of the proposed changes on rice outputs. It also looks at the value of the improvements in environmental quality that the proposals should produce. The study finds that far from there being a trade-off between conservation and rural development, the proposed changes could produce both an improvement in the Delta’s ecology and provide a net benefit to society. This suggests that the proposed plans represent a win-win for both nature and for people and that, given that society as a whole will benefit, money should be made available to compensate individual farmers for any losses. The research findings suggest what level of compensation should be provided and highlight other areas for research.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Do, T.N., 2007. Impacts of dykes on wetland values in Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta: A case study in the Plain of Reeds (PhD Thesis). Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, Singapore. web.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/12114357241ThangNamDoRR.pdf


Case studies in Switzerland

Case Study

Case study details

Incentives of Land users in Projects of Soil and Water conservation, the Weight of Intangibles

Study from: 1997, published in 2000
Authors: E. Bergsma
Location(s): Switzerland (Alps)

Abstract:

Many studies of soil and water conservation in third world situations show that among the farmers' incentives the commercial view on rural management is important and that at the same time intangible considerations are playing an important role. Traditional belief, local customs as well as inner conviction are also significant in the farmer's life. An example of incentives of land husbandry in the first world is given by a case of the Swiss Alp-farming. Their great attachment to this type of farming as well as the national support for mountain farmers' income play a role. In activities aimed at improvement of rural development in a third world country, the viewpoint of the expert may easily dominate any kind of plan making because of his position in the projects. However, his cultural background may limit his understanding of the rural situation in countries foreign to him. This has frequently lead to misjudging the importance of other than commercial incentives. A critical self-appraisal of motives and attitude to life by the adviser would often be needed in order to take immaterial incentives into account in development projects and in the achievement of agricultural policy. From the experience obtained in the third world and from the case study of the European alp-farming, the weight of intangibles in the land users' incentives appears as one of the crucial factors in rural management. This weight will grow with the present increasing need for sustainable agricultural productivity as well as with the need to create a sustained use of the environment in many parts of the world.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Bergsma, E., 2000. Incentives of land users in projects of soil and water conservation, the weight of intangibles. GeoJournal. 50(1): 47-54. www.jstor.org/stable/41147448


Case studies in Nicaragua

Case Study

Case study details

Investment and Equity Effects of Land Regularisation: The Case of Nicaragua

Study from: based on data from 2000, published in 2004
Authors: K. Deininger and J.S. Chamorro
Location(s): Nicaragua

Abstract:

We use data from Nicaragua to examine the impact of award of registered and non-registered title on land values and changes in land-attached investment. Registration, acquisition through purchase, and agrarian reform title all are associated with significant increases in the value of plots. Receipt of registered title is found to increase land values by 30% and at the same time greatly increase the propensity to invest, bringing such investment closer to the optimum. In line with descriptive statistics indicating great demand for land right regularisation especially from the poor, this suggests that titling can have a positive distributional effect. At the same time, the legal validity and official recognition of the titles issued appears to be of great importance.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Deininger, K., & Chamorro, J.S., 2004. Investment and equity effects of land regularisation: the case of Nicaragua. Agricultural Economics. 30(2): 101-116. elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1596/1813-9450-2752

Case Study

Case study details

Protege tu mangle - Protection of the mangrove forest in Corinto, Nicaragua

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Edgar André Lampenscherf; Henrik Trevisan
Location(s): Nicaragua

Abstract:

This case study is about Corinto, a small city on a peninsula of the pacific coastline of Nicaragua, surrounded by a thick and impassable mangrove forest. Excessive mangrove logging and industrial sewerage have critically endangered great parts of the city’s coastline, putting at risk its flora and fauna and leaving great parts of the former mangrove land degraded. The local population highly depends on the supply of mangrove firewood and the sea food as a crucial food source. Therefore, it is not only the future of the ecosystem, but also the living conditions of the local population, which seems to be at stake. In addition to that, ongoing land degradation has diminished the effectiveness of natural mangrove coastline protection, resulting in a constant hazard for the local population through floodings, hurricanes and tsunamis, hitting the land with high frequency.

The focus of this case study therefore lies on both, the endangered ecosystem of the mangroves as well as the use of the natural resource for the purpose of cooking and as a habitat for maritime wildlife. Therefore the exploitation of the resource can easily be considered a service, benefitting the local population on a non-­?industrialized but still commercial small scale, enough to throw the vulnerable ecosystem out of balance and considerably harm its healthiness.

 

Full reference of the paper/report:

Lampenscherf, E. A., Trevisan, H., 2015. Protege tu mangle - Protection of the mangrove forest in Corinto, Nicaragua. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

The Cost of Soil Erosion in Nicaragua

Study from: 1994 , based on 1983-1992 data, published in 1996
Authors: K. H. Alfsen, M. A. De Franco, S. Glomsrod and T. Johnsen
Location(s): Nicaragua

Abstract:

The cost of soil erosion is not so much dependent on the physical amount of soil lost as determined by the economic effects of these losses. Soil erosion has both onsite and offsite effects. Loss of soil productivity is the main onsite effect, while enhanced productivity of downstream land, sedimentation and eutrophication of waterways and reservoirs are common offsite effects. In this paper we consider only the onsite effects of erosion. The loss of agricultural productivity is, however, studied within a broader economic framework than usual. By incorporating the direct economic effects of soil loss into a general equilibrium model, it is possible to shed light on some of the many interlinkages between agricultural activity and other parts of the economy which are important for determining the social cost of soil erosion. Based on model simulations, we find that soil erosion represents a considerable drag on the Nicaraguan economy, but that the burden of soil erosion depends on conditions and policies in non-agricultural markets such as the labour market. Furthermore, the sharing of the burden is not always to the disadvantage of the peasants. While uncertainties in data and modelling prevent us from drawing strong conclusions, the present study underlines the importance of considering the overall economic environment when policy proposals for mitigating excessive soil erosion is formulated.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Alfsen, K.H., De Franco, M.A., Glomsrød, S., & Johnsen, T., 1996. The cost of soil erosion in Nicaragua. Ecological Economics.16(2): 129-145. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0921800995000836


Case studies in Tajikistan

Case Study

Case study details

Legacy Effects in Joint Forestry Management in Eastern Tajikistan (based on M.Sc. thesis: "A Study of Forest Management in a Post-Soviet Context: The Case of Tajikistan")

Study from: 2012, published in Submitted for publication (thesis: University of Cambridge Dissertation, Downing College 2012)
Authors: L.J. Haider, B. Neusel, G. Peterson and M. Schlüter
Location(s): Tajikistan (Western Pamirs)

Abstract:

Natural resource systems around the world require innovative governance strategies to manage resources sustainably in order to avoid a Tragedy of the Commons. Institutional economics has demonstrated that most rational resource users will cooperate in order to collectively manage resources in the long-term (Ostrom, 1990). Collective action frameworks look to structural institutional variables to explain how communities manage common pool resources, such as forests, but have often failed to explain situations where an external actor is the impetus of collective action, or where contextual variables, such as history, politics and culture override the institutional composition. Joint Forestry Management (JFM) is one example of a governance approach which distributes power amongst forest stakeholder to manage forests more sustainably. In post-Soviet Tajikistan, JFM has been met with varying success, with some communities implementing the approach well, while others have failed and some communities have rejected the intervention entirely. Using a mixed-methods approach, this research seeks to improve our understanding of the factors that influence the maintenance or improvement of forest resources in Gorno-Badakhashan Autonomous Oblast, Tajikistan. Conceptually, this case study explores the suitability of an institutional social-ecological framework for addressing this problem. The combined use of complementary conceptual frameworks, statistical analysis and qualitative inductive research, clearly demonstrates that contextual variables can matter more than institutional structural variables in determining the dynamics of a complex social-ecological system. In particular, historical leadership, culture and land-use change appear to be strong determinants of communities’ current affinity for successful collective action. Political ecology is used as a lens to analyse the power-laden legacy effects, indicating that a fundamental reorganization of the forest agency is required if the current situation is to improve. The dissertation concludes that without a proper understanding of the history of the region, and invoking the memory of the people, institutional inertia in the forestry sector will be difficult to overcome.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Haider, L.J., 2012. A Study of Forest Management in a Post-Soviet Context: The Case of Tajikistan. MSc thesis, University of Cambridge Dissertation, Downing College. Extract submitted for publication in March 2013. (No information on the journal it was submitted to, web link not available)

Case Study

Case study details

Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting - Concrete Tank

Study from: 2011, published in 2013
Authors: WOCAT
Location(s): Tajikistan (Boshkengash, Rudaki region)

Abstract:

please see summary sheet directly

Full reference of the paper/report:

WOCAT, 2013. Rooftop rainwater harvesting - concrete Tank (Tajikistan). teca.fao.org/sites/default/files/technology_files/6_RoofTopRainwaterHarvesting_Tajikistan.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Stakeholders’ Engagement Plan: Eradicate Land Degradation and Introduce Sustainable Land Use Management Mechanisms.

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Kudrat Nurmetov, Dilovar Okilov and Bakhtiyor Zukhurov
Location(s): Tajikistan (Muminabad District)

Abstract:

Muminabad is a city with more than 13’000 inhabitants situated in the South of Tajikistan. The area has a semi-arid climate with a season of rain in spring. At the feet of the mountains reaching 2650m a.s.l., the city itself is at 1200m a.s.l. Two channels are crossing the city, each of them resulting from the water collected in two watersheds: Khojahakik watershed (~ 10km2), and Chorvodor watershed (~20km2). Three small villages are situated in the watersheds where people are living all year long.

A significant climate change cannot be proved by the available meteorological data, but different indicators lead to the conclusion that this phenomenon probably must be due to significantly increased run-off in the watersheds. A loss of soil cover in the watersheds since the end of the 80’s is leading to a decrease in infiltration and interception by the vegetation, to land degradation, and to increased sediment transport downstream.

Our team applied the interest-influence matrices method to categorize our identified stakeholders. One of the primary reasons we chose this method is level of influence the stakeholders can have. The other important feature is that this method also defines the level of interest. The interaction between or among the stakeholders can also be illustrated through this method. In our case the Committee on Environmental Protection under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, which primarily deals with policy making issues at national level, does not directly interact with individual land users at field. Whereas the ecological department of Muminabad district directly controls the use of land resources by individual users and companies. The other advantage of this stakeholder mapping method is that eases the stakeholders’ analysis by showing a clear picture of their level of influence, interest and interaction, thus is greatly contribute in developing a Stakeholder Engagement Plan with clear division of rights, responsibilities and mandates.

In addition, our team have employed the actor-linkage matrices tool to investigate the interaction among/between the stakeholders we have determined. We have chosen the actor-linkage matrices tool for its simplicity, flexibility and use of table to defining the interrelation of the stakeholders that we have determined. Characterization of the interrelations by simple, but still important, terms was another reason we have chosen this tool. The other advantage of this tool is that it can be utilized in an open field using flipcharts (or whiteboard) and markers with direct involvement of individual stakeholders such as farmers, land owners and representatives of concerned local state agencies (district/sub-district administration departments).

 

Full reference of the paper/report:

Nurmetov, K., Okilov, D., Zukhurov, B. 2015. Stakeholders’ Engagement Plan: Eradicate Land Degradation and Introduce Sustainable Land Use Management Mechanisms. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in

Case Study

Case study details

Making business out of land restoration: The Ecuador Tree People

Study from: ongoing, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): Ecuador (Andes)

Abstract:

As interest in local travelling and eco travelling increases, there are more and

more companies offering services which combine ecological benefits and

tourism. The Ecuador Tree People offers reforestation tours in different areas,

in Andes, Ecuador. Tourists combine trekking in the area, getting knowing the

local livelihoods and get to learn about the environment, enjoy it and take part

in reforestation activities.

Full reference of the paper/report:

The Ecuador Tree People, 2013. ecuadortreepeople.com


Case studies in Senegal

Case Study

Case study details

Minimum-data Analysis of Ecosystem Service Supply in Semi-subsistence Agricultural Systems

Study from: 2010 (based on data from Kenya: 1997-2001, and from Senegal: 2001, 2003-2004), published in 2010
Authors: J. M. Antle, B. Diagana, J. J. Stoorvogel and R. O. Valdivia
Location(s): Kenya and Senegal

Abstract:

Antle and Valdivia (2006) proposed a minimum-data (MD) approach to simulate ecosystem service supply curves that can be implemented using readily available secondary data and validated the approach in a case study of soil carbon sequestration in a monoculture wheat system. However, many applications of the MD approach are in developing countries where semi-subsistence systems with multiple production activities are being used and data availability is limited. This paper discusses how MD analysis can be applied to more complex production systems such as semi-subsistence systems with multiple production activities and presents validation analysis for studies of soil carbon sequestration in semi-subsistence farming systems in Kenya and Senegal. Results from these two studies confirm that ecosystem service supply curves based on the MD approach are close approximations to the curves derived from highly detailed data and models and are therefore sufficiently accurate and robust to be used to support policy decision making.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Antle, J.M., Diagana, B., Stoorvogel, J.J., & Valdivia, R.O., 2010. Minimum-data analysis of ecosystem service supply in semi-subsistence agricultural systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 54(4): 601-617. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8489.2010.00511.x/abstract


Case studies in Germany

Case Study

Case study details

Modelling the Value of a Multifunctional Landscape - A Discrete Choice Experiment

Study from: 2007, published in 2009
Authors: R. Borresch, S. Maas, K. Schmitz and P.M. Schmitz
Location(s): Germany (Wetterau region)

Abstract:

In the context of today’s intensive discussion of landscape multifunctionality, one primary objective of the current European Union policy is to support the implementation of multifunctionaly within the EU. In order to assess the economic feasibility of the implementation of a multifunctional land use in the Wetterau region in Germany this study addresses the question whether the local population, which is above all affected by the degradation of landscapes, benefits from a change from today’s landscape dominated by intensive agricultural production towards a multifunctional landscape. Based on data obtained by discrete choice experiments in the Wetterau region, a cost-benefit-analysis is carried out using the modelling and assessment framework CHOICE. The results show that the local population of the Wetterau region assigns a high value to a landscape that takes into account ecological aspects of landscape composition. In fact, the CHOICE model suggests that the willingness-to-pay for the multifunctionality scenario is higher than for all other scenarios under study. Moreover, taking implementation costs into account a regional cost-benefit analysis indicates that the provision of a multifunctional landscape will lead to a positive net benefit for society.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Borresch, R., Maas, S., Schmitz, K., & Schmitz, P.M., 2009. Modelling the value of a multifunctional landscape - A discrete choice experiment. Contributed paper prepared for presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference (Aug 16-22), Beijing, China. purl.umn.edu/51641

Case Study

Case study details

The Case of Messdorfer Feld: Achieving Sustainable Soil Management through Stakeholders’ Engagement

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Melanie Joshi, Liberty Tanangco, Christine Priessner, Rianne C ten Veen, Kristin Bretthauer, Eva Hill, Arturo Mariano Figueroa, Hannes Podzum, Ana Riza Mendoza
Location(s): Germany (Bonn)

Abstract:

Our first goal is the further development of Messdorfer Feld. Due to land degradation the main focus will be on sustainable soil management which typically includes less use of pesticides, less trill, the installation of dripping irrigation system, planting local seeds as well as crop rotation or intercropping. Moreover, all crop residues from surroundings will be collected by the local government and applied on the agriculturally used areas in order to generate more valuable humus. The land use and the soil itself will benefit soil from all the nutrients available around the fields. Use of crop residues will foster closing the cycle of nutrients. Taking into account that the year 2015 has been declared "The International Year of Soils" by the United Nations we would like to reach as many people and stakeholders as possible. We recognize the relevance of a better understanding of soil, its functions as well as restrictions, and its importance for our livelihood. In our opinion, it is the most important issue for changing priorities within the agriculture.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Joshi, M., Tanangco,L., Priessner, C., ten Veen, R. C., Bretthauer, K., Hill, E., Figueroa, A. M., Podzum, H., Mendoza, A.R. 2015. The Case of Messdorfer Feld: Achieving Sustainable Soil Management through Stakeholders’ Engagement. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in Paraguay

Case Study

Case study details

Opportunity Costs: Who Really Pays for Conservation?

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: V. M. Adams, R. L. Pressey and R. Naidoo
Location(s): Paraguay (Mbaracayu Forest Biosphere Reserve)

Abstract:

Designing conservation areas entails costs that, if considered explicitly, can be minimized while still achieving conservation targets. Here we focus on opportunity costs which measure forgone benefits from alternative land uses. Conservation planning studies often use partial estimates of costs, but the extent to which these result in actual efficiencies has not been demonstrated. Our study partitions land costs into three distinct opportunity costs to smallholder agriculture, soybean agriculture and ranching. We demonstrate that opportunity costs to single stakeholder groups can be inaccurate measures of true opportunity costs and can inadvertently shift conservation costs to affect groups of stakeholders disproportionately. Additionally, we examine how spatial correlations between costs as well as target size affect the performance of opportunity costs to single stakeholder groups as surrogate measures of true opportunity costs. We conclude that planning with opportunity costs to single stakeholder groups can result in cost burdens to other groups that could undermine the long-term success of conservation. Thus, an understanding of the spatial distributions of opportunity costs that are disaggregated to groups of stakeholders is necessary to make informed decisions about priority conservation areas.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Adams, V.M., Pressey, R.L., & Naidoo, R., 2010. Opportunity costs: Who really pays for conservation? Biological Conservation. 143: 439–448. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320709004765


Case studies in

Case Study

Case study details

Options and Pathways for Stakeholder-Engagement in the Palm Oil Sector in the district of Chires, Puriscal, Costa Rica

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Miriam Romero; André Orth; Lara Pusch
Location(s): Costa Rica (Chires district, Puriscal)

Abstract:

Oil palm is a perennial crop grown in areas with tropical climate and fertile soil. Its low production cost, high profits and high yields, not only make it attractive to farmers but also to large multinational com-panies. However, there is a long debate about the negative impacts on the environment and biodiver-sity. Some of these are soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, low crop production/low quality of the fruit, increase of pest or decrease of water retention. In part, this is caused by the land use change, e.g. multi-cropping fields are turned into monoculture oil palm plantations, or rainforest is cut down to pro-duce this crop. There are no trends that indicate that the production of oil palm will decreased in the future, on the contrary, it will continue its expansion. For the purpose of this study, our focus is on ana-lysing the agricultural value chain of oil palm in the district of Chires, Costa Rica with the aim to identify the main stakeholders.

The first case of oil palm plantation in Costa Rica was driven by the Standard Fruit Company in 1944, but it was only until 2000 that started its expansion to the district of Chires (MAG, 2015). Prior oil palm ex-pansion, land was mainly used for cattle farming. However, there are also remaining patches of forest in the area. The ideal climatic conditions for oil palm in the area (very humid forest with high annual pre-cipitation and temperatures around 26°C) and the high interest of two big companies looking for in-vestment opportunities, have lead to a rapid expansion of this crop, increasing from 60 ha to almost 900 ha in the last 8 years, which consequently negative environmental impacts are expected.

In Chires, oil palm growers are either independent or affiliated to one of the two cooperatives, Co-opegamlotillo or Cooperchires. Both cooperatives cover an area of 412.6 ha with their 49 producers affiliated, while there are 16 independent growers representing 484.8ha. Furthermore, in Chires, the production, promotion and selling of the oil palm is contracted by two processing companies: Palma Tica (contracts with 69% of the total producers and covering an area of 658.5ha) and Coopeagropal (con-tracts with 31% growers and covering 238.8ha). However, some main concerns faced by the growers are: cost of transport, cost of production and pest.

Given the multiple stakeholders involved in the agricultural value chain of oil palm, this study aims to contribute to a better understanding of who are the main stakeholders and their roles in order to pro-mote sustainable cultivation practices. For this, some questions we will ask are: How can we find out important stakeholders and how do we identify who is involved? How are they linked? How influential are they? And what are their goals?

 

Full reference of the paper/report:

Romero, M., Orth, A., Pusch, L. 2015. Options and Pathways for Stakeholder-Engagement in the Palm Oil Sector in the district of Chires, Puriscal, Costa Rica. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

Project: Creating a Buffer Zone in the Savegre Delta, Costa Rica

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Salla Eilola, Anna Heller, Timo Beiermann, Sabrina Geppert
Location(s): Costa Rica

Abstract:

The delta of the Savegre River is located on the Central Pacific coast of Costa Rica, in the southern area of the National Park Manuel Antonio, a state owned and managed protected area. This case focuses on the mangrove ecosystem still existing today within the river delta, reaching a total of 246,91 ha. Avicennia sp. and Rhizophora sp. are the main mangrove species found, intermingled with ornamental plants and palm trees. The mangrove Ecosystem shows fragmentation with large patches dominated by ornamental plants and vines. Although Manuel Antonio National Park has several mangrove areas associated to several river deltas (total area of 826 hectares of mangrove forests; 47% of its territory), those mangroves located closest to the Savegre river mouth are the most degraded. The mangroves in the Savegre Delta are categorized as “restricted area”, allowing only scientific investigations in the area when authorized, restoration or protection measures, and occasionally eco-tourism when a special permit is issued. Mangroves in the Savegre Delta have lost roughly 60% of their coverage since 1949. The lower part of the Savegre river basin located outside the borders of the National Park is only partially populated but has intensive agricultural activities, livestock, urban development and infrastructure in the surroundings of the Park. This applies to the middle part of the basin as well.

Economic activities that depend on mangrove ecosystems are fisheries (from small to industrial scale) and tourism. But those most dependent on a lasting and consistent provision are those living closest to the ecosystem and need natural resources for their own diet. Furthermore, mangroves serve as a natural barrier protecting coasts and hinterlands from natural disasters, coastal erosion and climate change, all of which already take place. People most affected by it are population and land owners along the coast and specifically behind the National Park, although they may not be aware of how and to what extent the impact on their lives and properties will be. An efficient way of demonstrating real value is to compare the cost for maintaining or restoring mangrove forest opposed to the cost of installing and maintaining hard structures along the coast to protect against floods, swells, storms and erosion. A costbenefit analysis conducted to compare two protection projects, one being a mangrove conservation project and the other the construction of a dike, showed that coastal protection by natural ecosystems is a more cost-effective method to protect the shore line. The same study entails that the mangroves in the Savegre Delta are worth conserving, because they also provide a wide range of ecosystem services bound to a high economic value.

Recreational value, scenic beauty, potential for education and research are attributed to cultural ecosystem services. All of these also have their monetary values, when associating them with activities like recreational, scientific, international, and national tourism, for example.

 

Full reference of the paper/report:

Eilola, S., Heller, A., Beiermann, T., Geppert, S. 2015. Project: Creating a Buffer Zone in the Savegre Delta, Costa Rica. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in Russia

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445


Case studies in Niger

Case Study

Case study details

Planting Pits and Stone Lines

Study from: 1999, updated 2004, published in 2007
Authors: WOCAT
Location(s): Niger (Tahoua)

Abstract:

please see summary sheet directly

Full reference of the paper/report:

WOCAT, 2011. Planting pits and stone lines: Niger – Tassa avec cordon pierreux. SWC Technology. teca.fao.org/sites/default/files/technology_files/9_PlantingPitsAndStoneLines_Niger.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Water-Spreading Weirs for the Development of Degraded Dry River Valleys: Experience from the Sahel

Study from: 2011, published in 2012
Authors: D. Nill, K. Ackermann, E. van den Akker, A. Schöning, M. Wegner, C. van der Schaaf and J. Pieterse
Location(s): Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad (degraded dry valleys)

Abstract:

Over the last 12 years water-spreading weirs have been introduced and improved as a new rehabilitation technique for degraded dry valleys in Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad. They complement the previously available, proven rehabilitation measures for drainage basins. In contrast to other techniques, water-spreading weirs are especially well suited for the large-scale rehabilitation of wide and shallow dry valleys that have been seriously degraded and in which severe gully erosion prevents the regular flooding that would normally be typical there.

Substantial degradation of drainage basins in the Sahel due to population growth and intense land-use pressure has been observed since the 1960s. Climate change has further amplified this trend. Sparse vegetation cover and structurally damaged soils reduce rainfall infiltration into the soil, resulting in more runoff and soil erosion on plateaus and slopes. Runoff is concentrated in the valleys, in which heavy floodwaters wash away fertile soils and lead to deep erosion of the riverbed.

The study analyses lessons learned and impacts of water-spreading weirs. Findings are based on available documentation of GIZ projects in Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad. These were combined in a cross-national study. Experience to date from Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad shows that water-spreading weirs bring about substantial ecological, economic and social improvements.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Nill, D., Ackermann, K., van den Akker, E., Schöning, A., Wegner, M., van der Schaaf, C., & Pieterse, J., 2012. Water-spreading weirs for the development of degraded dry river valleys: Experience from the Sahel. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Germany. www.giz.de/fachexpertise/downloads/giz2013-en-water-spreading-weirs.pdf


Case studies in Burundi

Case Study

Case study details

Study on the costs of inaction against land degradation in Burundi (Etude sur les coûts de l’inaction contre la dégradation des sols au Burundi)

Study from: 2008, published in 2011
Authors: A. Gihimbare, S. Ndabirorere, S. Ruzima
Location(s): Burundi

Abstract:

This study focuses on the evaluation of the economic and environmental costs of inaction against soil degradation in Burundi. There is a strong dependence on land and natural resources in Burundi, which is leading to the degradation of fertile soils. This particularly affects agriculture, livestock farming, and forestry.

The degradation of forest ecosystems negatively influences Burundi’s national economy as well as the global environment, due to loss of carbon storage and biodiversity. Additionally, inaction against forest ecosystem degradation has direct impacts on economic development and human well-being.

Estimates of the costs of inaction against land degradation in the forestry sector amount to nearly USD 3.36 million per annum, due to the foregone benefits of biological resources, carbon storage, and utilization of wood energy. This study revealed that the USD 8 million cost of developing the Ntahangwa watershed in Burundi would actually be beneficial when considering the avoided losses of public and private goods, as well as the improved living conditions in the region.

However, beyond technical solutions, a proactive policy in favor of sustainable land management and a strong increase in public and private investments is necessary, and should involve local communities, civil society organizations, and the private sector. If significant commitments are not taken towards these actions, Burundi will remain in a vicious circle of poverty from continued loss of fertile land, leading to insufficient agricultural yields and ultimately social unrest. Investments in land and land-based ecosystems represent an opportunity to fight against land degradation and embark on the path of sustainable human development.

 

(Please note that this case study is only available in French)

Full reference of the paper/report:

MINISTERE DE L’EAU, DE L’ENVIRONNEMENT, DE L’AMENAGEMENT DU TERRITOIRE ET DE L’URBANISME, 2011. Etude sur les coûts de l’inaction contre la dégradation des sols au Burundi


Case studies in

Case Study

Case study details

Sundarban Eco-restoration Programme - Stakeholder Engagement Plan

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Md. Salimul Alam Shahin, Deepak Sharma, Palash Sharma
Location(s): Bangladesh, India

Abstract:

The Sundarbans is serving a lots of ecological functions which include protecting cyclone and tidal bores, oxygen production, natural nursery for shrimp and crabs, waste recycling, carbon cycling, supply of food and building materials, trapping of sediments and land formation. Ignorance and lack of ownership, no one to take care of, lack of investment of authorized and lack of investment are some of the reasons behind degradation of such land. It is a matter of regret that, the land in Sundarbans is degrading day by day because of human interruption, natural calamity, population growth, agricultural and household extension, faulty policies of the government. Natural resources including flora and fauna are in stake due to human intervention. It is high time to think about it and to admit the proper value of Sundarbans reserve forest.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Shahin, S. A., Sharma, D., Sharma, P. 2015. Sundarban Eco-restoration Programme - Stakeholder Engagement Plan. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in

Case Study

Case study details

The Economics of Land Degradation in Piura, Peru

Study from: ?, published in ?
Authors: María de los Angeles Barrionuevo Mora
Location(s): Peru

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine the economic benefits from the adoption of methods to promote sustainable land management and prevent land degradation in the region of Piura, Peru.

The region of Piura is important for national development (contributes to 4.2% of Gross Value Added of the country) but it is also one of the regions most affected by land degradation (13% of the total area is affected by desertification and degradation).

Desertification is produced by land use changes which have led to the replacement of natural ecosystems in order to allocate productive activities which have been conducted on the basis of inappropriate farming practices. Since agriculture is the most important economic activity in the region, this study focused on the main crops of Piura: mango and rice.

Once alternative SLM practices have been identify, a financial analysis was performed to determine the possibility of its application.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barrionuevo, M. (2015). The Economics of Land Degradation in Piura, Peru.


Case studies in Brazil

Case Study

Case study details

The Fibria case

Study from: ongoing, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): Brazil

Abstract:

Fibria’s forest plantations are located in important areas in terms of nature conservation. To reduce the impact of its plantations on these valuable environments, Fibria is carrying out various initiatives and projects, including restoration of degraded land to natural forests, preservation of environment and sustainability in the countryside through the Forest Reserves programme.

 

 

Full reference of the paper/report:

FIBRIA., 2013. Forest Reserves Program. www.fibria.com.br/web/en/ambiente/poupanca.htm


Case studies in United Kingdom

Case Study

Case study details

The Non-use Benefits of Enhancing Biodiversity: A Contingent Ranking Study

Study from: 1995, published in 1997
Authors: G.D. Garrod and K.G. Willis
Location(s): Great Britain

Abstract:

Until recently, the majority of commercial forestry in the UK has comprised blanket planting of non-native coniferous species which typically do not offer a high level of biodiversity. However, the UK government, and consequently the UK Forestry Commission, are committed under various international agreements to conserve and enhance biodiversity in British forests. The study reported in this paper estimates that substantial non-use values would be generated if the Forestry Commission were to continue in its current efforts to develop management practices that promote an increase in biodiversity across a large area of its commercial holdings in remote parts of the country which are seldom visited. Rather than adopting a referendum-type contingent valuation method, a discrete-choice contingent ranking approach is used to estimate the general public's willingness to pay to increase the area of these forests managed under each of three forest management standards designed to offer increasing levels of biodiversity at the expense of commercial timber production. This permits relative preferences for different forest management standards to be measured at the same time as willingness to pay to enhance biodiversity.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Garrod, G.D., & Willis, K.G., 1997. The non-use value of enhancing forest biodiversity - A contingent ranking study. Ecological Economics. 21: 45-61. ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecolec/v21y1997i1p45-61.html

Case Study

Case study details

The UK National Ecosystem Assessment

Study from: 2010, published in 2011
Authors: Coordinating Lead Authors: R. Watson and S. Albon Authors: R. Aspinall, M. Austen, R. Bardgett, I. Bateman, P. Berry, W. Bird, R. Bradbury, C. Brown, J. Bullock, J. Burgess, A. Church, S. Christie, I. Crute, L. Davies, G. Edwards-Jones, B. Emmett, L. Firbank, A. Fitter, C. Gibson, R. Hails, R. Haines-Young, L. Heathwaite, J. Hopkins, M. Jenkins, L. Jones, G. Mace, S. Malcolm, E. Maltby, L. Maskell, K. Norris, S. Ormerod, J. Osborne, J. Pretty, C. Quine, S. Russell, L. Simpson, P. Smith, M. Tierney, K. Turner, R. van der Wal, B. Vira, M.Walpole, A. Watkinson, T. Weighell, J. Winn and M. Winter. Extended Writing Team: UK NEA Chapter Lead Authors and Contributing Authors
Location(s): Great Britain (UK)

Abstract:

This analysis is set in the context of improved economic decision-making for a range of services provided by the natural environment in Great Britain.

The approach taken combines scenario analysis and modelling of ecosystem service provision.Six plausible scenarios employing very different policy priorities, each with two different climate scenarios (high and low), are considered: i) Green and Pleasant Land, where a preservationist attitude to UK ecosystems is taken; ii) Nature@Work where ecosystem services are promoted through the creation of multifunctional landscapes; iii) Local Stewardship, where society strives to be sustainable within its immediate surroundings; iv) Go with the Flow, where current trends are assumed to continue, and in which current principles and practices are not radically altered; v) National Security, where there is reliance on greater self-sufficiency and efficiencies; and vi) World Markets, where the goal is economic growth and the elimination of trade barriers. These scenarios are the result of a dialogue between the researchers and user community based on different levels of evidence-based drivers of change in ecosystem service provision. For each scenario, changes in monetary values of five ecosystem service goods have then been assessed from a 2000 baseline to 2060: i) agricultural food production; ii) terrestrial carbon storage and annual greenhouse gas emissions – resulting in net greenhouse gas emissions; iii) open-access recreation; iv) urban greenspace amenity; and v) biodiversity (assessed using birds as indicator species). These services do not represent the totality of possible ecosystem services but rather services from which provide the basis of major value streams. The values for two scenarios, Nature@Work and World Markets, are then compared across space.

This study shows that very substantial changes in value are generated when differing levels of ecosystem services are provided. It also demonstrates that non market values are much higher than the market agricultural output values traditionally considered for decision making. Ranking of scenarios based on market values changes drastically when non market values are included. The two contrasted scenarios lead to markedly different spatial patterns of changes in ecosystem service values, with the Markets scenario negatively affecting non market values for biodiversity.

This study demonstrates that including valuations of non-market goods generated by ecosystem services radically change the outcome of decision analyses. Also, allowing market-priced values to dominate to the complete exclusion of non-market values results in less benefits to society overall. Failure to include non market values leads to a continuation of errors in resource allocation which arise when decisions are based upon market-priced goods alone. Decision making must change and include a full implementation of conventional techniques of economic analysis if social values are to be optimised and resources used efficiently.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Watson, R., & Albon, S., 2011. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Synthesis of the Key Findings. p. 49-52. UK National Ecosystem Assessment, Cambridge. uknea.unep-wcmc.org

Case Study

Case study details

The UK National Ecosystem Assessment

Study from: 2010, published in 2011
Authors: Coordinating Lead Authors: R. Watson and S. Albon Authors: R. Aspinall, M. Austen, R. Bardgett, I. Bateman, P. Berry, W. Bird, R. Bradbury, C. Brown, J. Bullock, J. Burgess, A. Church, S. Christie, I. Crute, L. Davies, G. Edwards-Jones, B. Emmett, L. Firbank, A. Fitter, C. Gibson, R. Hails, R. Haines-Young, L. Heathwaite, J. Hopkins, M. Jenkins, L. Jones, G. Mace, S. Malcolm, E. Maltby, L. Maskell, K. Norris, S. Ormerod, J. Osborne, J. Pretty, C. Quine, S. Russell, L. Simpson, P. Smith, M. Tierney, K. Turner, R. van der Wal, B. Vira, M.Walpole, A. Watkinson, T. Weighell, J. Winn and M. Winter. Extended Writing Team: UK NEA Chapter Lead Authors and Contributing Authors
Location(s): Wales (UK)

Abstract:

This case study is set in the context of the reform of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy and climate change mitigation. It considers the case of a change in rural land use in Wales from farming to multi-purpose woodland.

The approach taken is a mix of regression analysis, scenario modelling and cost-benefit analysis. Timber yield and farmgate incomes are modelled separately as functions of bio-physical parameters and management options, using regression analysis and spatially referenced data on land use activities. Profits from timber and agricultural activities are then compared across space to derive the spatial distribution of most profitable land uses. Prices are then ‘corrected’ for market price distortions and to include the value of externalities. This allows to estimate the ‘true’ economic values - including both market and non-market values - generated and their variation across space. Economic values of agricultural production, timber, carbon storage, recreation are then compared across space.

The main results show that the current spatial distribution of land uses is, as expected, correlated with financial profits made by landowners from agricultural or timber production. Removing agricultural subsidies (market distortion) and accounting for economic benefits associated with carbon storage and woodland recreation (externalities) leads to a different spatial distribution of land use. This new land use pattern shows that it would be socially beneficial to have more woodlands close to population centres than is currently the case or shown by current levels of profits.

These findings imply that profit levels do not reflect well the total economic value of services provided by forests. Decision based on current profit levels or true economic value lead to very different decisions made on the socially desirable land use. Considering ‘true’ economic values rather than ‘face value’ market prices better accounts for values to society as a whole and therefore should be the basis for improved decision-making.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Watson, R., & Albon, S., 2011. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Synthesis of the Key Findings. p. 42-44. UK National Ecosystem Assessment, Cambridge. uknea.unep-wcmc.org

Case Study

Case study details

Valuing Biodiversity and Conservation at a Local Level

Study from: 1994, published in 1994
Authors: G.D. Garrod and K.G. Willis
Location(s): Great Britain

Abstract:

At a time where much of the discussion about major issues in nature conservation is necessarily undertaken at a global level, it is still important to consider the needs of the smaller organizations who do much of the grass roots work in the protection of wildlife and biodiversity. This study focuses on one such group, and examines how the contingent valuation method can be used to help to inform its decisions relating to the management of its portfolio of reserves in order to maximize benefits to its members. This paper argues that at a local level, where actions will not have significant global effects, contingent valuation methodology can inform decisions by assessing the value of additional reserves or particular conservation programmes to members in terms of their willingness to pay to acquire or implement them.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Garrod, G.D., & Willis, K.G., 1994. Valuing biodiversity and conservation at a local level. Biodiversity and Conservation. 3: 555-565. www.planta.cn/forum/files_planta/3_814.pdf


Case studies in Burkina Faso

Case Study

Case study details

The On-Site Cost of Soil Erosion in Mali

Study from: 1989, based on data from 1981-1988, published in 1989
Authors: J. Bishop and J. Allen
Location(s): Mali (using data from Burkina Faso)

Abstract:

Land degradation in the Sahelian countries of West Farida is widely perceived as a critical threat to economic development. Some studies have quantified the extent of physical decline locally bit few have attempts to determine its economic impact. There is some evidence, however that current rates of depletion of Sahelian land resources may be excessive from an economic perspective, due to insecurity of land tenure and poorly developed capital markets.

This paper attempts to evaluate the gross on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali, a nation in which subsistence farming accounts for about one-fifth of national income. Mean local rates of soil erosion by rainfall are estimated and mapped using data derived from a land resources atlas of Mali and the Universal Soil Loss Equation. This analysis concerns only cultivated land within a north-south swath of Mali, comprising roughly one third of the country's most productive agricultural areas Average soil loss Is estimated at 6.5 tons/ha/yr, with higher losses occurring in the South (maximum 31 tons/he/yr).

Using a range of assumptions about the impact of erosion on crop yields, estimated rates of soil erosion on farm land imply average annual yield penalties in the study area between 24 and 104. These losses are expressed in terms of foregone net farm income, using farm budgets recorded in Burkina Faso.

Estimates of foregone farm income are compared to the costs of a relatively inexpensive soil conservation technology (rock contour bunds). Areas are identified where such investment may be justified as shown by a higher level of estimated farm income foregone.

The report suggests that economic returns to agriculture will be overstated by conventional benefit-cost analysis. On an annual basis, and ignoring possible price effects, current net farm income foregone nationwide due to soil erosion is estimated at US$4.6 to $18.7 million. However, soil erosion in one season affects crop yields in each subsequent year, until the land is fallowed. Under conservative assumptions of a ten-year time horizon and a 10% discount rate, the present value of current and future net farm income foregone nationwide, due to one year of average soil loss, is estimated at US$31 to $123 million (4% to 16% of agricultural GDP).

For most of Mali's agricultural land, there probably exist some cost-effective measures to reduce erosion losses. We must distinguish, however, between cost-effectiveness from a public and from a private perspective. If farmers do not already use basic soil conserving measures, it may be because they discount potential increased future yields at such a high rate that almost any present investment is uneconomic. This might be more effectively remedied by policy changes, such as formal recognition of indigenous land tenure system which would increase access to formal credit, or relaxation of constraints on informal credit.

Because of the uncertainty of the underlying calculations, any policy and program prescriptions based on this research must be tentative. The study is perhaps best considered as an illustration of a method of evaluation land degradation rather than as a definitive analysis with which to justify intervention. Hence the emphasis throughout is on methods of approximation and comparison.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Bishop, J., & Allen, J., 1989. The on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali. Environment Working Paper No. 21. The World Bank, Washington D.C. www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1989/11/01/000009265_3960928152005/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Water-Spreading Weirs for the Development of Degraded Dry River Valleys: Experience from the Sahel

Study from: 2011, published in 2012
Authors: D. Nill, K. Ackermann, E. van den Akker, A. Schöning, M. Wegner, C. van der Schaaf and J. Pieterse
Location(s): Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad (degraded dry valleys)

Abstract:

Over the last 12 years water-spreading weirs have been introduced and improved as a new rehabilitation technique for degraded dry valleys in Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad. They complement the previously available, proven rehabilitation measures for drainage basins. In contrast to other techniques, water-spreading weirs are especially well suited for the large-scale rehabilitation of wide and shallow dry valleys that have been seriously degraded and in which severe gully erosion prevents the regular flooding that would normally be typical there.

Substantial degradation of drainage basins in the Sahel due to population growth and intense land-use pressure has been observed since the 1960s. Climate change has further amplified this trend. Sparse vegetation cover and structurally damaged soils reduce rainfall infiltration into the soil, resulting in more runoff and soil erosion on plateaus and slopes. Runoff is concentrated in the valleys, in which heavy floodwaters wash away fertile soils and lead to deep erosion of the riverbed.

The study analyses lessons learned and impacts of water-spreading weirs. Findings are based on available documentation of GIZ projects in Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad. These were combined in a cross-national study. Experience to date from Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad shows that water-spreading weirs bring about substantial ecological, economic and social improvements.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Nill, D., Ackermann, K., van den Akker, E., Schöning, A., Wegner, M., van der Schaaf, C., & Pieterse, J., 2012. Water-spreading weirs for the development of degraded dry river valleys: Experience from the Sahel. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Germany. www.giz.de/fachexpertise/downloads/giz2013-en-water-spreading-weirs.pdf


Case studies in Hungary

Case Study

Case study details

The Possibility of the Economic Evaluation of Ecosystem Services Described Through a Domestic Case Study

Study from: based on data from 1965-2010, published in 2011
Authors: Z.M. Szerényi, S. Kerekes, Z. Flachner and S. Milton (Eds. G. G. Nagy and V. Kiss)
Location(s): Hungary

Abstract:

In the modern societies humans are largely managing the world’s natural resources such as soil, fresh water, food, or timber, as limitless, never-ending resources, although once used, their renewal requires time. Over the past few decades, our demand for these resources has grown considerably due to exponential economic growth and population boom. This has put pressure on Earth’s ecosystems on an unprecedented scale, including habitat loss and degradation, climate change, biological invasions, overexploitation and pollution. Humankind consumed the ecological resources available for the whole year during less than the first nine months of 2011. The balance of demand-supply collapsed more than one month earlier than it had in 2009. This excessive demand for natural resources and land result in immense loss of biodiversity, one which is 100-1000 times higher than the background rate. Since all ecosystem services obtained from nature, such as food, fresh water, disaster prevention, soil formation, directly or indirectly depend on biodiversity, halting biodiversity loss has become a centrepiece of environmental policies at all levels. In 2001 the European Union set the target on halting biodiversity loss by 2010, which was translated into global commitment one year later to significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by the same time. But these targets were not met and thus they were revised at global as well as at EU levels. Reducing pressures that threaten natural systems requires a change in our approach. This change must take place simultaneously at all social and political levels, since it depends on communities of all sizes (settlement, regional, national, EU, UN) in order to protect and maintain biogeographic space in a harmonized way and in cooperation with one other. Among the drivers behind biodiversity loss, values of society (being cultural drivers) are significant and largely determine the current unsustainable consumption and production patterns. Attitudes towards ecosystem services influence many of our actions, several of which are currently harm the environment directly or indirectly. Therefore, we must balance our values so that we appreciate services provided by nature more and put less emphasis on consumption and material wealth. In this vein, criticism of GDP has been emerging, since this indicator measures only economic growth and does not consider human well-being and the maintenance of natural conditions. Attitudes towards ecosystems affect not only environmental, but also socio-economic decisions. The main challenge to develop proper policies is to dig down to the bottom of the problems and tackle the drivers behind them, instead of implementing end-of-pipe solutions. Policies should aim to reduce the total human pressure on ecosystems, including the unsustainable use of land and the overuse of natural resources and ecological space. In addition to changing the current harmful practices, political efforts should also aim at restoring degraded ecosystems to improve spatial structures and enhance ecosystem functions. During formulating and implementing policies, it should be fully considered that natural and socio-economic systems work together inseparably. Each ecosystem on any scale is multifunctional; it provides numerous services to sustain nature as well as human society. Policies should aim to maintain and harmonize the diversity of ecosystem functions, especially in planning and management. Bearing cultural, institutional and structural drivers of biodiversity loss in mind, even minor daily decisions of individuals may impact the state of the surrounding landscape, not to mention decisions arising from local/ regional spatial planning and development decisions. In environmental sciences, descriptive and analytical research is increasingly being replaced by systematic-approach, which concentrates rather on the analysis of interactions and cause-effect relationships. This publication aims to show good examples of proper measures and models to evaluate natural values and to integrate them properly into policies. Methods presented in the articles could play fundamental role in decision making, by presenting possible environmental and social consequences of particular policies.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Szerényi Z.M., Kerekes S., Flachner Z., & Milton S., 2011. The possibility of the economic evaluation of ecosystem services

described through a domestic case study. In: Nagy, G.G. and Kiss, V. (eds.), Borrowing services from nature - Methodologies to evaluate focusing on Hungarian case studies. CEEweb for Biodiversity, Budapest, Hungary. www.ceeweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/ES_publication_web1.pdf


Case studies in Cambodia

Case Study

Case study details

The Value of Land Resources in the Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia

Study from: 2010, published in 2011
Authors: J. Soussan and C. Sam
Location(s): Cambodia

Abstract:

The management of land resources is the basis of the livelihoods of most of Cambodia’s population and is a dominant part of the national economy. Although other sectors are growing rapidly, in 2009 agriculture accounted for nearly 1/3 of Cambodia’s GDP and directly employed over 50% of the workforce, whilst nearly 80% of the population still live in rural areas. Other natural resource-based sectors such as forestry and fisheries are also important and the ‘multiplier’ effects of agriculture and related sectors in areas such as trade and processing increase their significance in the national economy. Despite recent economic progress, Cambodia remains poor, ranking 124th in the world in terms of the UNDP’s Human Development Index. The recent global economic downturn and rising food prices have together shown the potential vulnerability of emerging growth sectors to external conditions and the management of land resources remains the foundation of livelihoods and food security for the majority of Cambodia’s population. The contribution of land resources to national development and the potential of these resources, where sustainable land management is practiced, for more rapid poverty reduction and sustainable development are too often not recognized. The increasing recognition of the importance of ecosystem goods and services to economic growth and poverty reduction comes at the same time as evidence that human pressure on ecosystems is negatively impacting the provision of these services. Land degradation pressures such as soil erosion and deforestation have emerged as important issues in the development debate in Cambodia, affecting directly the productivity of agriculture as well as impacting on water resource availability, the availability of fish and forest products and other key ecosystems services. There are also concerns over the integrity of some of the most important ecosystems in the whole Mekong Region, ecosystems that contain biodiversity resources of global significance and provide a wide range of other vital services to people living both in the immediate vicinity and further afield. The study reported in this paper represents the first attempt at a comprehensive valuation of all ecosystems services of a large area in Cambodia, the central Cardamom Mountains, and indeed is one of the first such assessments globally. As is discussed below, such an assessment inevitably has numerous limitations and depends upon the veracity and comprehensiveness of the data available. Although far from perfect, there is an increasingly rich range of such data, including many case studies on the value of individual ecosystems services such as carbon sequestration, non-timber forest products or watershed protection functions. These have been supplemented by field studies to help provide information on a particularly important issue where available data was extremely limited: the role and value of land resources in the livelihoods of local communities living in the study area. There are clear limitations on the results presented here, these are spelt out below, but despite the limitations these results do provide an accurate enough understanding of both the relative values of different ecosystems services and, most importantly for policy development, the overall value of the full range of ecosystems services that an area such as the Central Cardamom Mountains will generate. This understanding is vital if effective approaches to sustainable land management are to be identified.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Soussan, J., & Sam, C., 2011. The values of land resources in the Cardamom mountains in Cambodia. Global Mechanism. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forests (Cambodia), Global Mechanism, Conservation International and the Asian Development Bank. www.theoslo.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/The_Values_of_Land_Resources_in_the_Cardamom_Mountains_final.pdf.


Case studies in Canada

Case Study

Case study details

The Whistler Blackcomb case

Study from: 1992 - ongoing, published in ?
Authors: ?
Location(s): Canada (Whistler Blackcomb)

Abstract:

Whistler Blackcomb ski resort was faced with severe environmental pollution

in 1992 as a result of an oil spill due to poor operations management. The spill

pollution demanded extensive cleaning and work to avoid such incidents in the

future. However, the incident made the company focus on the restoration of the

polluted area and on other sustainability projects in order to ensure future

business. The company works to limit erosion due to tourism. The measures

also protect drinking water and fish habitats.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Whistler Blackcomb, 2013. Environment. www.whistlerblackcomb.com/environment/index.aspx.

Case Study

Case study details

Vineyards and Tourism in the Niagara Region: Cost-Benefit Analysis

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: Elizabeth Philip; Shikha Raj; Navneet Kumar; Prashant Kumar; Vivek Kumar; Felix Akrofi-Atitianti
Location(s): Canada (Ontaria Region)

Abstract:

Full reference of the paper/report:

Philip, E., Raj, S., Kumar, N., Kumar, P., Kumar, V., Akrofi-Atitianti, F. 2014. Vineyards and Tourism in the Niagara Region: Cost-Benefit Analysis. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in New Zealand

Case Study

Case study details

Valuation of Agricultural Impacts on Rivers and Streams Using Choice Modelling: A New Zealand Case Study

Study from: 2008, published in 2011
Authors: P. Tait, R. Baskaran, R. Cullen and K. Bicknell
Location(s): New Zealand (Canterbury region)

Abstract:

Increasing substitution of dry land pastoral and arable farming for water-intensive practices is placing pressure on water resources in Canterbury. Although there is a large body of scientific data documenting environmental change, there is a general lack of information on the economic values of agricultural impacts on rivers and streams. This paper applies an economic non-market valuation method to help address this issue. Three impacts are considered: health risks of pathogens from animal waste; ecological effects of excess nutrients; and low-flow impacts of irrigation. This study provides a valuation of outcomes for public agri-environmental policy implemented in Canterbury such as The Dairy and Clean Streams Accord, Living Streams and The Restorative Programme for Lowland Streams. Modelling results indicate that the 5-year economic value for improvements to rivers and streams in Canterbury provided by agri-environmental policy is estimated to be about $186 million.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Tait, P., Baskaran, R., Cullen, R., & Bicknell, K., 2011. Valuation of agricultural impacts on rivers and streams using choice modelling: A New Zealand case study. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 54(3): 143-154. www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00288233.2011.588234


Case studies in Sweden

Case Study

Case study details

Valuation of Environmental Impacts of the Rural Development Program - A Hedonic Model with Application of GIS

Study from: 2011, published in 2011
Authors: C. Liljenstolpe
Location(s): Sweden

Abstract:

The payments within the Rural Development Programme 2007- 2013 seek to improve the environment and contribute to rural development and economic growth. These policy measures may therefore have visual effects on the rural landscape. To achieve a measure of willingness to pay for these effects, a hedonic pricing approach is applied. The prices for staying at holdings in the “Staying on farms” registry are used to quantify the valuation of these visual effects. The results of this study indicate that there is a relationship between the price of rental objects and spatial variables constructed in GIS. Riparian strips and animals at the farm are positively valued. Cultivated land, grazing and meadow lands close to the settings are negatively valued. Hence, this study indicate that there is a positive willingness to pay for payments addressing user values in a diversified landscape and a negative willingness to pay for actions leading to a more monotonous landscape, such as payments to extensive grazing systems.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Liljenstolpe, C., 2011. Valuation of environmental impacts of the Rural Development Program - A hedonic model with application of GIS. Paper prepared for the 122nd EAAE Seminar “Evidence-based agricultural and rural policy making methodological and empirical challenges of policy evaluation.” Ancona, Italy. ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/98881/2/Liljenstolpe.pdf


Case studies in

Case Study

Case study details

Wadi Gaza - Case Study

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: Ali Salha
Location(s): Palestine (Gaza)

Abstract:

We are conducting a cost-benefit research analysis on Wadi Gaza's current situation and its future plan through analyzing our proposed scenario.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Salha, A. 2014. Wadi Gaza - Case Study. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.


Case studies in Chad

Case Study

Case study details

Water-Spreading Weirs for the Development of Degraded Dry River Valleys: Experience from the Sahel

Study from: 2011, published in 2012
Authors: D. Nill, K. Ackermann, E. van den Akker, A. Schöning, M. Wegner, C. van der Schaaf and J. Pieterse
Location(s): Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad (degraded dry valleys)

Abstract:

Over the last 12 years water-spreading weirs have been introduced and improved as a new rehabilitation technique for degraded dry valleys in Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad. They complement the previously available, proven rehabilitation measures for drainage basins. In contrast to other techniques, water-spreading weirs are especially well suited for the large-scale rehabilitation of wide and shallow dry valleys that have been seriously degraded and in which severe gully erosion prevents the regular flooding that would normally be typical there.

Substantial degradation of drainage basins in the Sahel due to population growth and intense land-use pressure has been observed since the 1960s. Climate change has further amplified this trend. Sparse vegetation cover and structurally damaged soils reduce rainfall infiltration into the soil, resulting in more runoff and soil erosion on plateaus and slopes. Runoff is concentrated in the valleys, in which heavy floodwaters wash away fertile soils and lead to deep erosion of the riverbed.

The study analyses lessons learned and impacts of water-spreading weirs. Findings are based on available documentation of GIZ projects in Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad. These were combined in a cross-national study. Experience to date from Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad shows that water-spreading weirs bring about substantial ecological, economic and social improvements.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Nill, D., Ackermann, K., van den Akker, E., Schöning, A., Wegner, M., van der Schaaf, C., & Pieterse, J., 2012. Water-spreading weirs for the development of degraded dry river valleys: Experience from the Sahel. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Germany. www.giz.de/fachexpertise/downloads/giz2013-en-water-spreading-weirs.pdf


Global and regional case studies


Case Study

Case study details

Adding Value to Livestock Diversity: Marketing to Promote Local Breeds and Improve Livelihoods

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP and FAO
Location(s): Latin America, Africa, Asia: India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Argentina, South Africa, Mauritania, Somalia

Abstract:

Throughout the world and over centuries, small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists have developed animal breeds that are well suited to their local conditions. These breeds are hardy and disease-resistant; they can survive on little water and scant vegetation. They can continue producing meat and milk in areas where modern, imported breeds succumb without expensive housing, feed and veterinary care. They enable people to earn a living in otherwise inhospitable areas, and embody valuable genetics for future breeding efforts. Nevertheless, these breeds are in danger of disappearing, pushed out by modern production techniques and out-competed by exotic breeds. Finding niche markets for their products is one possible way of ensuring the survival of these breeds, and enabling the people who keep them to earn more from their existing lifestyle.

Full reference of the paper/report:

LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP, & FAO, 2010. Adding value to livestock diversity - Marketing to promote local breeds and improve livelihoods. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 168. FAO, Rome. www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1283e/i1283e.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management using the PESERA-DESMICE Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

Study from: 2006-2013, published in currently under review
Authors: L. Fleskens, D. Nainggolan and L. C. Stringer
Location(s): Botswana (Boteti), Cape Verde (Ribeira Seca), Chile (Secano Interior), China (Yanhe River basin), Greece (West-Crete), Mexico (Cointzio), Morocco (Sehoul), Portugal (Mação and Goís), Spain (Murcia), Tunisia (Zeuss-Koutine), and Turkey (Eski?ehir and Karap

Abstract:

Scenario analysis is a valuable way in which scientific models can be employed to inform land degradation mitigation, particularly for evaluating the spatial extent of the applicability of potential sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, their cost, and the likely impacts they will bring. We demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework, illustrating the model analysis with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots affected by a variety of degradation processes (e.g. water and wind erosion, drought, wildfires, overgrazing). The assessment makes use of spatial cost-benefit analysis. The key assumption underpinning the modelling is that technologies need to be financially attractive to land managers.

 

Starting with a baseline scenario representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are feasible in which locations, including an assessment of economic viability for the land user in each place; we term these ‘technology scenarios’; (2) How policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and economic viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these ‘policy scenarios’; (3) How technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these ‘global scenarios’.

 

Input data was primarily obtained from an assessment of 22 SLM technologies using the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodology, field experiments, and information sheets with further data requests that were completed by study site staff. Costs of inputs and prices of agricultural outputs were given in local currency and Euros to facilitate cross-comparison between sites.

 

The assessments show that SLM technologies can reduce soil erosion in 18% (vegetative measures) to over 50% (management measures) of study site areas. Apart from agronomic measures, which are often cheap, average investment costs of technologies vary from €500 per ha for management measures to €1750 per ha for structural and vegetative measures with important variability both within and between sites. Despite these investment costs, the appraised technologies were financially feasible in between 25% (agronomic and management measures) to 100% (vegetative measures) of the areas in which they are applicable. Policy incentives in many cases lead to important gains in the area where technologies are financially feasible while reducing soil erosion. Yield increases of more than 500 kg per ha are possible in many cases, costing less than €250 per ton grain calculated over the lifetime of the technologies. Soil erosion can be reduced by 20-80% (or more) in the vast majority of cases, generally at a cost of less than €100 per ton of soil conserved.

 

Using ‘inter-site’ comparisons, the methodology we present can help target investment in technologies to the particular degradation hotspots where they will be most cost-effective. There is also scope to assess the viability of technologies documented for one area (i.e. where it is trialled or implemented) when transferred to another area by updating unit cost price information. We therefore conclude that scenario assessments can provide informative inputs to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Fleskens, L., Nainggolan, D., &Stringer, L.C., 2013. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24263675

Case Study

Case study details

Assessing the Extent, Cost and Impact of Land Degradation at the National Level: Findings and Lessons Learned from Seven Pilot Case Studies

Study from: 2003 (based on data from 1986-1999), published in 2003
Authors: L. Berry, J. Olson and D. Campbell
Location(s): China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile, Indonesia

Abstract:

This study, commissioned by the Global Mechanism with support from the World Bank examined available national data on the extent, costs and current remedial actions concerning land degradation and sustainable land management in seven pilot countries. This was a desk study, but included countries where the authors had detailed long term knowledge. The results of the work are presented in seven case studies of China, Ethiopia, Mexico, Uganda, Rwanda, Chile and Indonesia; and this overview paper, which presents a synthesis of the lessons learned from the cases and from a review of the current academic and report literature.

Both encouraging and cautionary lessons can be drawn from this work. There are situations in the seven pilot countries and others cited in the literature, where sustainable and economic levels of productivity have been achieved under conditions of ongoing soil and water conservation. There are even stories of good application of low cost technologies. There are however other situations where poverty and land degradation appear to feed off each other in a downward spiral with the disruption of both farming and socio-economic systems.

In most cases the best available national assessments suggested that agricultural productivity is reduced by land degradation at a minimum rate of 3 to 7% and that investment in remedial action was an order of magnitude smaller than estimated costs. Governments were aware of the problem but responses especially in the past were typically top-down and directed to the on-site physical problems of soil and nutrient loss. On the other hand it is clear that policy issues can be critical factors in causing or reducing land degradation.

One of the concerns raised by the study was the incompleteness and inconsistency in the basic data on costs of land degradation and there is a case for a more comprehensive approach to this topic. However, information is sufficient to open up initial dialogues with respective governments on new approaches and increased investment in sustainable land management, targeting more integrated and holistic approaches and involving local and regional stakeholders in the activity at all stages.

One key recommendation suggests that the most efficient approach to mitigation would include a careful analysis of the policy framework most likely to facilitate mitigation through direct and indirect measures, capacity building and a focus on alternative livelihoods that would improve rural conditions and address poverty – degradation linkages.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Berry, L., Olson, J., & Campbell, D., 2003. Assessing the extent, cost and impact of land degradation at the national level: findings and lessons learned from seven pilot case studies. Global Mechanism. global-mechanism.org/edocman/download.php

Case Study

Case study details

Benefits Transfer: The Economic Value of the World's Wetlands

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: L. Brander and K. Schuyt
Location(s): Global

Abstract:

A global economic assessment of 63 million hectares of wetlands estimated their value at $3.4 billion per year. Wetlands play a significant role in delivering ecosystem services globally. The highest benefits are found in Asia with an economic value of $1.8 billion per year.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Brander, L., & Schuyt, K., 2010. TEEBCase: Benefits Transfer: The economic value of the world’s wetlands. TEEB. Geneva, Switzerland. www.teebweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/The-economic-value-of-the-worlds-wetlands.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Can Rewards for Environmental Services Benefit the Poor? Lessons from Asia

Study from: 2002-2007, published in 2009
Authors: B. Leimona, L. Joshi and M. Noordwijk
Location(s): Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines, Nepal)

Abstract:

Pro-poor rewards for environmental services (RES) link global priorities on poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Emerging approaches to payment for environmental services vary in mechanism and form of payment. Rural poverty is multidimensional and the poverty syndromes vary with the intensity of landscape use and management, with the solution to lack of access to markets, education and healthcare associated with loss of natural capital. RES mechanisms have to balance effectiveness and efficiency with fairness and pro-poor characteristics, with transaction costs as obstacles to both. The economic perspective on financial transfers needs to be balanced with the social and environmental paradigms of fairness. Our first hypothesis is that only under specific circumstances, actual cash incentive to individual participants of RES will contribute substantially to poverty alleviation of ES providers. The second hypothesis is that non-financial incentive to ES providers will contribute to reducing poverty by linking the community (participants and non-participants) to access to capital types (human, social/political, natural, infrastructure and financial, such as microcredit). Review of key ratios of relative number and wealth of service providers and beneficiaries supports the first hypothesis and rejects the notion of widespread potential for reducing upstream rural poverty through individual cash payments. Results of community focus group discussions support the second hypothesis through context-specific preferences for the mechanisms by which RES can trigger conditions for sustainable development.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Leimona, B., Joshi, L., & Noordwijk, M., 2009. Can rewards for environmental services benefit the poor? Lessons from Asia. International Journal of the Commons, North America. 3(1): 82-107. www.thecommonsjournal.org/index.php/ijc/article/view/121/85

Case Study

Case study details

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems in the West African Sahel: An Assessment of Biological and Socioeconomic Feasibility (Doctoral Thesis)

Study from: 2003-2007, published in 2007
Authors: A. Takimoto
Location(s): West African Sahel

Abstract:

In recent years, carbon (C) sequestration potential of agroforestry systems has attracted attention, especially following Kyoto Protocol‘s recognition of agroforestry as an option for mitigating green house gasses. Although the possible benefits of agroforestry in C sequestration have been conceptually discussed, field measurements to validate these concepts have not been undertaken to any significant extent. In addition to the traditional agroforestry systems, improved practices and technologies are now being expanded into the dry regions such as the West African Sahel for perceived benefits such as arresting desertification, reducing water and wind erosion hazards, and improving biodiversity. Thus, it is imperative to investigate C sequestration potential of agroforestry practices in these regions. My research hypothesizes that the tree-based systems will retain more C in the systems both above- and below-ground than tree-less land-use systems. By joining the C credit market, the landowners could sell the C sequestered in their agroforestry systems. My research consisted of three components. The first examined C (biomass + soil) stored in five target land-use systems: two traditional parkland systems involving Faidherbia albida and Vitellaria paradoxa trees as the dominant species, two improved agroforestry systems (live fence and fodder bank), and land that is out of cultivation (abandoned or degraded) in the Ségou Region, Mali. The second component involved a study of soil C dynamics of these systems: the extent of soil C storage/accumulation by trees and stability of the C accumulated were investigated. In the third component, socioeconomic feasibility of the agroforestry systems was examined in the context of C sequestration and C credit sale. Research results show that the selected agroforestry systems have the potential for sequestering more C both above- and belowground than in tree-less land-use systems, and that the trees tend to contribute to storing more stable C in the soil. Among the selected land-use systems, live fence and fodder bank are more suitable to start as agroforestry C sequestration projects than the traditional parkland systems for smallholder farmers in the studied region. Between the two improved systems, live fence has higher C sequestering potential per unit area and is economically less risky than fodder banks. Adopting these systems on cultivated land rather than on abandoned land is likely to sequester more C and be more profitable. Since parklands are traditionally practiced, they are not likely to qualify as a new C sequestration project soon. Nevertheless, F. albida trees are more attractive than V. paradoxa trees in terms of C sequestration potential. These results can be used for development of recommendations and guidelines on selection of land use-systems and species and their management, for planning successful C sequestration projects in the West African Sahel.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Takimoto, A., 2007. Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems in the West African Sahel: An assessment of biological and socioeconomic feasibility (Doctoral thesis). University of Florida. Gainesville, USA. ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/UF/E0/02/14/53/00001/takimoto_a.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Cork Oak Forest Management in Spain and Tunisia: Two Case Studies of Conflicts between Sustainability and Private Income

Study from: 2007, published in 2007
Authors: P. Campos, H. Daly-Hassen and P. Ovando
Location(s): Spain (Cadiz) and Tunisia (Ain Snoussi)

Abstract:

Two management scenarios are simulated: a cork oak stand with regeneration treatments (sustainable scenario) and, a cork oak stand with no-regeneration treatment (unsustainable scenario), which leads the cork oaks to age until they eventually disappear. The aim of the paper is to compare the present value of income changes from the sustainable and unsustainable management scenarios in Cadiz (Spain) and Ain Snoussi (Tunisia), considering the multiple commercial uses and forest amenities enjoyed by private owners (only in Cadiz) of cork oak forests. The results show that the sustainable cork oak forest management in Ain Snoussi generates a higher present value of aggregated labour and capital incomes and leads to a capital loss when compared to the current cork oak depletion scenario. In addition, the sustainable scenario in Ain Snoussi would reduce the total self-employed income for households that depend on open-access grazing resources. In Cadiz, the cork oak forest sustainable management scenario leads to a significant capital loss for private forest owners given current cork prices and government aid to forest natural regeneration.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Campos, P., Daly-Hassen, H., & Ovando, P., 2007. Cork oak forest management in Spain and Tunisia: Two case studies of conflicts between sustainability and private income. International Forestry Review.9(2): 610-626. www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1505/ifor.9.2.610

Case Study

Case study details

Corruption, Trade and Resource Conversion

Study from: 2003-2004, based on data from 1960-1999, published in 2005
Authors: E. B. Barbier, R. Damania and D. Léonard
Location(s): Tropical low and middle income countries

Abstract:

Recent evidence suggests that special interest groups significantly affect tropical deforestation through lobbying. We develop an open-economy model in which resource conversion is determined by a self-interested government that is susceptible to the influences of the political contributions it receives from the profit-maximizing economic agent responsible for land conversion. We investigate the effects of lobbying on the cumulative level of resource conversion and examine how trade policy influences the distortions created by political corruption. We derive testable predictions that are analyzed through a panel analysis of cumulative agricultural land expansion over 1960–99 for low and middle-income tropical countries. Our findings suggest that increased corruption and resource dependency directly promote land conversion, whereas rising terms of trade reduce conversion.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., Damania, R., & Léonard, D., 2005. Corruption, trade and resource conversion. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 50: 276-299. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0095069605000185

Case Study

Case study details

Cost-effectiveness of Dryland Forest Restoration Evaluated by Spatial Analysis of Ecosystem Services

Study from: 2010, published in 2010
Authors: J. C. Birch, A. C. Newtona, C. Alvarez Aquino, E. Cantarello, C. Echeverría, T. Kitzberger, I. Schiappacasse and N. T. Garavito
Location(s): Argentina, Mexico, and Chile (Nahuel Huapi, Río Negro/Neuquén (Argentina); El Tablon, Chiapas (Mexico); Central Veracruz (Mexico); and Quilpue Valparaíso region (Chile) )

Abstract:

Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Birch, J.C., Newton, A.C., Aquino, C.A., Cantarello, E., Echeverría, C., Kitzberger, T., Schiappacassee, I., & Tejedor Garavitoa, N., 2010. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.107(50): 21925-21930. www.pnas.org/content/107/50/21925.abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Deforestation, Land Degradation and Rural Poverty in Latin America: Examining the Evidence

Study from: 1996-1997, based on data from 1961-1991, published in 1998
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Latin America

Abstract:

The following paper examines aggregate evidence of a link between rural poverty, land degradation and deforestation in Latin America. Overall trends in land degradation and deforestation are discussed, as well as the geographical ‘location’ of the rural poor. The paper also compares and contrasts three statistical analyses of the factors influencing deforestation across the region, and finds evidence of potential rural poverty-resource degradation linkages given the negative relationship between income per capita as well as agricultural yields and deforestation, as well as the positive relationship between rural population density and forest clearance. However, policies aimed at increasing economic growth are not sufficient on their own to reverse the rural poverty-resource degradation linkage in Latin America. Instead, these need to be supported by more targeted policies and investments to raise the comparative returns to existing agricultural lands, improve the access of poor rural households to land and credit markets, extend key infrastructure, extension and marketing services to the rural poor, and remove tax and pricing distortions that benefit mainly wealthier farmers and landowners.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 1998. Deforestation, land degradation and rural poverty in Latin America: Examining the evidence. Planejamento e Políticas Públicas (Public Planning and Policy) Special Issue on Economic Issues for Environmental Policymaking in Developing Countries. 18: 155-170. ipea.gov.br/ppp/index.php/PPP/article/view/102/105

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Rhino Conservation in a Land-Use Context within the Region

Study from: 2005, published in 2005
Authors: A. Spenceley and J. Barnes
Location(s): South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Botswana and Zambia

Abstract:

In December 2004 IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa commissioned an economic analysis of rhino conservation in southern Africa. The aim of the analysis was to explore the rationale for regarding rhino as "flagship species" in terms of: The extent to which they might “add value" to existing wildlife operations in state and private areas; The extent to which their protection and monitoring needs might confer blanket protection for other wildlife components that might be vulnerable to human pressures (notably poaching, and including the converse possibility, that rhino may attract poachers into an area where other wildlife is then poached); The extent to they might contribute to community-based tourism and thereby to rural livelihoods, including comment on the opportunities for "direct incentives" payments to landholders or communities who ensure breeding opportunities for this species; The extent to which, in view of the above, they might be catalytic to land-use changes that entail a move towards wildlife production from alternative land-uses such as livestock production. Economic analyses were to concentrate on market values of relevant goods and services rather than non-use values, and to outline the issues and implications of consumptive uses of rhino within the SADC region. The analysis was essentially a pilot study that was designed to achieve an initial general insight into economic issues surrounding black and white rhino in southern Africa. Therefore rather than providing a comparative analysis between sites, or longitudinal evaluations, the study is largely descriptive for one or two case study sites within each part of the analysis. Where the availability of data has allowed, economic scenario analyses have been performed to generate realistic predictions for revenue generation in the future for enterprises and reserves that support rhino populations. In addition to presenting economic data regarding rhino around southern Africa, the discussion attempts to outline the issues and implications of consumptive and non-consumptive use of rhinos within the SADC region. The study considered whether rhino added value to wildlife operations in state and private areas by evaluating revenue generating activities and costs associated with rhino in South Africa and Namibia. The evaluation concluded that both black and white rhino provide a net benefit to both state and private protected areas through both consumptive and non-consumptive use. Considering the development of conservancies in Namibia and Zimbabwe, rhino have played a pivotal role in motivating land-use change. In Namibia the community-based natural resource management program embraces a major portion of all communal lands in the country, so that large areas are now allocated to wildlife uses, alongside livestock. In Zimbabwe financial benefits associated with the presence of rhino on private land catalysed the change in use from livestock to wildlife. A series of factors combined to bring about this change, which included an enabling political environment and legislation, support by WWF and appropriate financial assistance, the unsuitability of the habitat for livestock production and co-operation between neighbouring landowners. Both consumptive and non-consumptive uses of rhino have the potential to generate significant amounts of economic income and to contribute to the livelihoods of rural people. As land uses, they tend to be complementary and not mutually exclusive. This and other studies have shown that combinations of both non-consumptive and consumptive uses will generate maximum benefits. To provide the incentives needed for massive investment in rhino conservation, all possible uses should be explored for rhino.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Spencely, A., & Barnes, J., 2005. Economic analysis of rhino conservation in a land-use context region. SADC Regional Programme for Rhino Conservation. Harare, Zimbabwe. anna.spenceley.co.uk/files/Spenceley%20&%20Barnes.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Analysis of Tropical Forest Land Use Options

Study from: 1995-1996, based on data from 1980-1985, published in 1997
Authors: E. B. Barbier and J. C. Burgess
Location(s): 53 tropical low and middle income countries

Abstract:

Tropical deforestation is generally characterized as conversion of forest land to alternative uses, notably agriculture. This would suggest the need for rational decision making concerning the optimal allocation of tropical forest land between competing uses. The following paper explores this problem by devising rules for determining optimal land use allocation between timber and agriculture at the stand and forest levels. A complementary intertemporal model for optimal allocation of forest land to agricultural conversion at the forest level is also developed and used to derive a demand relationship for agricultural conversion, which is then approximated through empirical estimation.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., & Burgess, J.C., 1997.Economic analysis of tropical forest land use options. Land Economics. 73(2):174-195. www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/3147281

Case Study

Case study details

Economic Values and Incentives Affecting Soil and Water Conservation in Developing Countries

Study from: 1994-1995, published in 1995
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Low and middle income countries

Abstract:

Soil is an essential input to farming. This is especially true in the poorest countries, where agricultural production is crucial to development, the livelihoods of the majority of the population depend on the primary sector, and non-labor inputs in agriculture are negligible. And yet agricultural land use in these countries often results in the degradation of natural soil fertility and reduced productivity. Soil degradation under farming also inflicts off-site costs, through the processes of erosion, sedimentation, and leaching. The on- and off-site impacts of soil degradation are part of the social cost of agricultural production in developing countries. However, these costs are routinely neglected by farmers and public planners, due to market and policy failures that mask the full cost of degradation to society. An important task for policy analysts and decision-makers is to identify the underlying causes of excessive soil degradation, to evaluate their economic significance, and to create incentives for less destructive land-use practices. Appropriate policies can help by making the full costs and benefits of alternative land-use practices more apparent to land users. This paper addresses these issues by discussing the various economic factors that influence land degradation in developing countries.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., & Bishop, J.T., 1995. Economic and social values affecting soil and water conservation in developing countries. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 50(2): 133-135. www.jswconline.org/content/50/2/133.extract

Case Study

Case study details

Environmental and Economic Costs of Soil Erosion and Conservation Benefits

Study from: 1994, published in 1995
Authors: D. Pimentel, C. Harvey, P. Resosudarmo, K. Sinclair, D. Kurz, M. McNair, S. Crist, L. Shpritz, L. Fitton, R. Saffouri and R. Blair
Location(s): Global

Abstract:

Soil erosion is a major environmental threat to the sustainability and productive capacity of agriculture. During the last 40 years, nearly one-third of the world's arable land has been lost by erosion and continues to be lost at a rate of more than 10 million hectares per year. With the addition of a quarter of a million people each day, the world population's food demand is increasing at a time when per capita food productivity is beginning to decline.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Pimentel, D., Harvey, C., Resosudarmo, P., Sinclair, K., Kurz, D., McNair, M., Crist, S., Shpritz, L., Fitton, L., Saffouri, R., & Blair, R., 1995. Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science. 267(5201):1117-1123. www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/267/5201/1117

Case Study

Case study details

Explaining Agricultural Land Expansion and Deforestation in Developing Countries

Study from: 2003-2004, based on data from 1960-1999, published in 2004
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Latin America, Asia, Africa (Tropical low and middle income countries)

Abstract:

This article explores further the economic factors underlying agricultural land expansion and tropical deforestation in developing countries. The main focus is on land-use change in the tropics, as this is where the majority of the world’s poorest countries are located. The paper first provides a brief summary of global tropical forest and land-use trends. This is followed by an overview of cross-country analyses of deforestation and agricultural land expansion, and from this review an empirical analysis is proposed and applied to a new cross-country data set for the period 1960-99. Greater dependency on agricultural and raw material exports, growth in agricultural value added, rural population growth are positively associated with agricultural land expansion, whereas the share of permanent and arable cropland in total land area is negatively associated. Corruption is the only institutional factor associated with land expansion. However, the resource dependency and corruption impacts on deforestation depend on what happens to a country's terms of trade.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2004. Explaining agricultural land expansion and deforestation in developing countries. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 86(5): 1347-1353. www.jstor.org/stable/3697952

Case Study

Case study details

Global Estimates of the Value of Ecosystems and their Services in Monetary Units

Study from: 2012, published in 2012
Authors: R. deGroot, L. Brander, S. van der Ploeg, R. Costanza, F. Bernard, L. Braat, M. Christie, N. Crossman, A. Ghermandi, L. Hein, S. Hussain, P. Kumar, A. McVittie, R. Portela, L. C. Rodriguez, P. ten Brink, P. van Beukering
Location(s): Global

Abstract:

This paper gives an overview of the value of ecosystem services of 10 main biomes expressed in monetary units. In total, over 320 publications were screened covering over 300 case study locations. Approximately 1350 value estimates were coded and stored in a searchable Ecosystem Service Value Database. A selection of 665 value estimates was used for the analysis. Acknowledging the uncertainties and contextual nature of any valuation, the analysis shows that the total value of ecosystem services is considerable and ranges between 490 int$/year for the total bundle of ecosystem services that can potentially be provided by an ‘average’ hectare of open oceans to almost 350,000 int$/year for the potential services of an ‘average’ hectare of coral reefs. More importantly, our results show that most of this value is outside the market and best considered as non-tradable public benefits. The continued over-exploitation of ecosystems thus comes at the expense of the livelihood of the poor and future generations. Given that many of the positive externalities of ecosystems are lost or strongly reduced after land use conversion better accounting for the public goods and services provided by ecosystems is crucial to improve decision making and institutions for biodiversity conservation and sustainable ecosystem management.

Full reference of the paper/report:

deGroot, R., Brander, L., van der Ploeg, S., Costanza, R., Bernard, F., Braat, L., Christie, M., Crossman, N., Ghermandi, A., Hein, L., Hussain, S., Kumar, P., McVittie, A., Portela, R., Rodriguez, L.C., ten Brink, P., & van Beukering, P., 2012. Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units. Ecosystem Services. 1: 50–61. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041612000101

Case Study

Case study details

Global-scale Mapping of Economic Bene?ts from Agricultural Lands: Implications for Conservation Priorities

Study from: based on data from 2005, published in 2007
Authors: R. Naidoo and T. Iwamura
Location(s): Global

Abstract:

Research in systematic conservation planning has focused heavily on biological considerations, even though a growing number of studies demonstrate that integrating economic costs into the planning process markedly increases the efficiency of resulting plans. At the global scale, the availability of biodiversity maps is increasing, but analogous maps for economic factors that affect biodiversity conservation are rare, and no study has examined global conservation planning at high resolution using both biodiversity and cost information. Here, we integrate spatial information on crop productivity, livestock density, and prices to produce a global map of the gross economic rents from agricultural lands. We then illustrate the importance of including such opportunity costs in global planning for the conservation of endemic vertebrate species. Plans that consider costs represent endemic species at 10–33% of the opportunity cost of plans that do not, and produce priority sets that diverge from existing schemes. Given scarce resources and the great cost-effectiveness of plans that consider both biodiversity and costs, mapping of the economic costs of conservation should receive similar levels of research attention as mapping of biodiversity.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Naidoo, R., & Iwamura, T., 2007. Global-scale mapping of economic bene?ts from agricultural lands: Implications for conservation priorities. Biological Conservation. 140: 409-49. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320707003011

Case Study

Case study details

Harnessing Pastoralists; Indigenous Knowledge for Rangeland Management: Three African Case Studies

Study from: 2012, published in 2012
Authors: G. Oba
Location(s): Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda

Abstract:

This article reports a rapid method for rangeland assessments in Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda by harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous knowledge among the Orma, Afar and Karamojong pastoralists. The study developed and evaluated a methodological framework for conducting joint assessments with pastoralist range scouts. The framework has four components: selection of ecological and anthropogenic indicators, indicator integration, evaluation of indicator outcomes and regional decision-making systems. The feedbacks between different components were used for information transfer. The framework was applied to the three case studies (using participatory methods). The scouts conducted rangeland assessments using ecological and anthropogenic indicators. Soils, and then vegetation, and finally livestock production were used as the main indicators for understanding rangeland degradation. In addition, pastoralists used key-plant species to assess landscape grazing suitability and soils to assess landscape-grazing potential. The latter is critical for evaluating potential stocking densities that each landscape could support during the wet or dry grazing seasons. For anthropogenic indicators herders used milk yield, body hair condition, weight gain and mating frequency to assess livestock production performances. Pastoralist scouts assessed rangeland degradation and trends using historical knowledge of the landscapes. The findings confirmed comparable knowledge systems among the three pastoral communities. The methods can be applied across regions where pastoralism still dominates the rural economy. The system of indigenous rangeland assessments and monitoring could rapidly provide information needed by policy makers. Harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous rangeland knowledge has implications for participatory research, for verifying and testing methods, as well as for sharing information in order to promote practical rangeland management.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Oba, G., 2012. Harnessing pastoralists' indigenous knowledge for rangeland management: Three African case studies. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2:1. www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/pdf/2041-7136-2-1.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Hidden Cost is Value Lost. The Economic Importance of Dryland Goods and Services in the IGAD Region.

Study from: 2006, published in 2006
Authors: IUCN
Location(s): Eastern Africa

Abstract:

Poorly planned development of the dryland ecosystems in the IGAD region could present large costs to society and particularly to the people who depend on these ecosystems for their livelihoods. Acknowledging the value of drylands and incorporating this value in local and national plans will help to ensure sustainable development and promotion of the most viable natural resource use options.

Full reference of the paper/report:

IUCN., 2006. Hidden cost is value lost. The economic importance of dryland goods and services in the IGAD region [Policy brief]. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Gland, Switzerland. cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/idrc_economics_brief__6_.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Integrating Economic Costs into Conservation Planning

Study from: 2006, published in 2006
Authors: R. Naidoo, A. Balmford, P.J. Ferraro, S. Polasky, T.H. Ricketts and M. Rouget
Location(s): Global

Abstract:

Recent studies that incorporate the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs in conservation planning have shown that limited budgets can achieve substantially larger biological gains than when planning ignores costs. Despite concern from donors about the effectiveness of conservation interventions, these increases in efficiency from incorporating costs into planning have not yet been widely recognized. Here, we focus on what these costs are, why they are important to consider, how they can be quantified and the benefits of their inclusion in priority setting. The most recent work in the field has examined the degree to which dynamics and threat affect the outcomes of conservation planning. We assess how costs fit into this new framework and consider prospects for integrating them into conservation planning.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Ferraro, P.J., Polasky, S. Ricketts, T.H., & Rouget, M., 2006. Integrating economic costs into conservation planning. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 21(12): 681-687. www.uvm.edu/giee/pubpdfs/Naidoo_2006_TRENDS_in_Ecology_and_Evolution.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Land Degradation, Less Favored Lands and the Rural Poor: A Spatial and Economic Analysis

Study from: 2013, published in 2014
Authors: E. Barbier, J. Hocard
Location(s): Global

Abstract:

First, through geographic information system (GIS) analysis, spatially referenced data will be employed to map globally indicators of land degradation, less favored land and less favored areas. Second, GIS will also be used to overlay the latter indicators with spatially referenced data on rural population and the percentage of this population in poverty. This analysis will be conducted globally, across the developing world, by region and by country, and for more than one time period. Third, these spatial data sets will be used in a cross-country econometric analysis to determine how poverty is affected by GDP per capita, income inequality, and the share of population and the rural poor on degraded land, less favored lands and less favored areas, as well as a number of fixed country effects. Finally, the results of the spatial and econometric analysis will be synthesized to determine how better policies can be implemented to improve sustainable land management and poverty alleviation.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., & Hochard, J.P., 2014. Land Degradation, Less Favored Lands and Rural Poor: A Spatial and Economic Analysis. A Report for the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative, University of Wyoming, Department of Economics and Finance. Final Report published in May 2014. www.edwardbbarbier.com/Projects/ELD/Economics_of_Land_Degradation_Initiative_Barbier_and_Hochard_abridged.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Links between Economic Liberalization and Rural Resource Degradation in the Developing Regions

Study from: 1999-2000, based on data from 1965-1995 in Ghana and 1970-1985 in Mexico, published in 2000
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Ghana, Mexico

Abstract:

This paper examines evidence of the effects of economic liberalization and globalization on rural resource degradation in developing countries. The principal resource effects of concern are processes of land use change leading to forestland conversion, degradation and deforestation. The main trends in globalization of interest are trade liberalization and economy-wide reforms in developing countries that have ‘opened up’ the agroindustrial sectors, thus increasing their export-orientation. Such reforms have clearly spurred agroindustrialization, rural development and economic growth, but there is also concern that there may be direct and indirect impacts on rural resource degradation. The direct impacts may occur as increased agricultural activity leads to conversion of forests and increased land degradation from ‘unsustainable’ production methods. However, there may also be indirect effects if agroindustrial development displaces landless, near-landless and rural poor generally, who then migrate to marginal agricultural lands and forest frontier regions. This paper explores these direct and indirect effects of globalization and agroindustrialization on rural resource degradation both generally, plus through examining case study evidence. The paper focuses in particular on the examples of structural adjustment, trade liberalization and agricultural development in Ghana, and maize sector liberalization in Mexico under North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2000. Links between economic liberalization and rural resource degradation in the developing regions. Agricultural Economics. 23: 299-310. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169515000000918

Case Study

Case study details

Livestock Marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A Review of Policies and Practice

Study from: based on data from 1998-2008, published in 2008
Authors: Y. Aklilu
Location(s): Ethiopia and Kenya

Abstract:

The last few years have witnessed a renewed interest in the export of live animals and meat from Kenya and Ethiopia. In both cases, the private sector has taken the lead in initiating or advocating for the revival of the export business, prompting the respective governments to pay attention to the potentials of livestock trade. In Kenya, this move was enhanced by the formation of a new Ministry for Livestock and Fisheries. This has led to the re-operationalization of the Kenya Meat Commission, new plans to set up satellite abattoirs in strategic locations along the northern corridor, innovative approaches to improve dilapidated market infrastructure and a continued interest in addressing sanitary requirements related to livestock and meat trade. Kenya has also incorporated a livestock marketing policy in the national livestock policy document (still in draft). Prior to this, interested groups such as the Kenya Livestock Marketing Council, initially supported by Arid Land Resource Management Project, had set up various district- based livestock marketing groups and played a major role in raising awareness and establishing linkages between producers and potential importers. During the last ten years in Ethiopia, the private sector has been active in setting up export abattoirs and also in the exporting of live animals. Government support to this sector was provided through the Livestock Marketing Authority, under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development at the time, forming exporter’s associations, identifying potential export markets, facilitating export procedures and so on. Bilateral programs specifically designed to address sanitary issues were also on the fore. An increasing number of donors (USAID and EU in particular), FAO and NGOs were also engaged in supporting livestock marketing from pastoral areas either through national, regional, cross-border or area-based programs. Some of these programs have been or are being implemented through regional organizations such as the Africa Union/Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and the Intergovernmental Authority for Development , and some through national based institutions or as stand-alone projects. Many of the NGOs operate at the local level with a few exceptions that operate at the national level. Considering the size of the human population that depends on livestock production in both countries, the development of domestic and export markets is critical to alleviating poverty, raising revenues, and continuing the trend towards more market-orientation. In realization of this potential, both governments are taking some encouraging measures towards promoting the marketing of livestock, specifically from pastoral areas. However, livestock and meat marketing, especially exports, is a complex process. The subsistence production systems in Ethiopia and Kenya cannot compete with commercial producers in Brazil or Australia. International trade barriers (SPS, tariff and non-tariff) impose huge limitations on both countries. Export marketing and promotional strategies in destination countries are almost non-existent. There is no economy of scale to offset costs. In short, the livestock and meat marketing systems are not as efficient nor as streamlined as those of their competitors. Yet, these problems are not insurmountable in the long-term. Some require substantial investments, for example, in animal health and SPS systems, infrastructure and processing facilities. Others may require a combination of institutional and attitudinal changes such as shifting the mode of production to meet what the market demands. Competing in the international market entails acquiring and practicing savvy marketing strategies along with availing the right product on time. Obviously, a public and private sector partnership is crucial to achieving long-term objectives. More importantly, an appropriate policy framework is the pre- requisite for providing an enabling environment for all actors. This paper will look into some policy and operational issues.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Aklilu, Y., 2008. Livestock marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A review of policies and practice. Feinstein International Centre, Addis Ababa. wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/download/attachments/24922042/Livestock+Marketing+in+Kenya+and+Ethiopia+-+Aklilu+2008.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Measuring the Economic Value of Land Degradation/Desertification and Drought Considering the Effects of Climate Change. A Study for Latin America and the Caribbean

Study from: based on data from 1985-2008, published in 2012
Authors: C. Morales, G. Dascal, Z. Aranibar and R. Morera
Location(s): Latin America/Caribbean

Abstract:

The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Global Mechanism of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification have implemented a joint project to measure the economic costs of land degradation, taking into account different climate change scenarios. The project’s main objective is to support policymakers in determining the allocation of resources to combat the effects of land degradation, desertification and drought. The project will produce a baseline of the costs of degradation and desertification for all countries studied, including an analysis of the potential long-term effects of climate change on degraded land. Seven countries in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Peru) have been included in this research work. This paper presents baseline costs and preliminary findings and projections for selected South American countries. Preliminary findings show that the annual cost of desertification varies widely, ranging from 6.6 to 14% of Agricultural Gross Value of Production, with significant differences within each country. The dynamics of degradation are also an important issue, especially in regions covered by tropical forests such as Ecuador and Peru.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Morales, C., Dascal, G., Aranibar, Z., & Morera, R., 2000. Measuring the economic costs of land degradation and desertification in selected South American countries. Secheresse. 23(3): 168-176. www.csf-desertification.org/files/pdf/seminaire-juin-2011/session-1/S1-Morales%20CSFD_juin_2011.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Minimum-data Analysis of Ecosystem Service Supply in Semi-subsistence Agricultural Systems

Study from: 2010 (based on data from Kenya: 1997-2001, and from Senegal: 2001, 2003-2004), published in 2010
Authors: J. M. Antle, B. Diagana, J. J. Stoorvogel and R. O. Valdivia
Location(s): Kenya and Senegal

Abstract:

Antle and Valdivia (2006) proposed a minimum-data (MD) approach to simulate ecosystem service supply curves that can be implemented using readily available secondary data and validated the approach in a case study of soil carbon sequestration in a monoculture wheat system. However, many applications of the MD approach are in developing countries where semi-subsistence systems with multiple production activities are being used and data availability is limited. This paper discusses how MD analysis can be applied to more complex production systems such as semi-subsistence systems with multiple production activities and presents validation analysis for studies of soil carbon sequestration in semi-subsistence farming systems in Kenya and Senegal. Results from these two studies confirm that ecosystem service supply curves based on the MD approach are close approximations to the curves derived from highly detailed data and models and are therefore sufficiently accurate and robust to be used to support policy decision making.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Antle, J.M., Diagana, B., Stoorvogel, J.J., & Valdivia, R.O., 2010. Minimum-data analysis of ecosystem service supply in semi-subsistence agricultural systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 54(4): 601-617. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8489.2010.00511.x/abstract

Case Study

Case study details

Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modelling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

Study from: 2006-2013, published in 2013
Authors: L. C. Stringer, L. Fleskens, M.S. Reed, J. de Vente and M. Zengin
Location(s): Spain (Murcia) and Turkey (Karapinar), also: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey (Eski?ehir), Chile, China, Portugal, Tunisia, Greece (Nestos and Crete), Morocco, Botswana, Russia (Novy and Dzhanybek)

Abstract:

Sustainable land management (SLM) in the world’s drylands has largely evolved as a consequence of local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted based on scientific evidence. This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas. This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results.

We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments. In all sites, economic evaluation criteria played a key role in stakeholders’ decisions, although other factors such as labour availability were also important.

Workshops from two study sites (Spain and Turkey) were used to: a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and b) discuss stakeholders’ suggestions about how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled.

In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. These were: traditional water harvesting (boquera); reduced tillage of almond orchards and cereal fields; straw mulch under almond trees; and green manure. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water. Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching. In Karapinar, Turkey, three SLM strategies were field-tested: minimum tillage, stubble fallowing and ploughed stubble fallowing. Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.

From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour. Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration. These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives. Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible. These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Stringer, L.C., Fleskens, L., Reed, M.S., de Vente, J., & Zengin, M., 2013. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation. Environmental Management. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868445

Case Study

Case study details

Review of the Literature on Pastoral Economics and Marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganada, and Sudan

Study from: 2006, published in 2006
Authors: M. Odhiambo
Location(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan

Abstract:

This is a report to the World Initiative on Sustainable Pastoralism within the framework of its Economics of Pastoralism consultancy, which seeks to collate and document information on economic valuations of pastoralism in the East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, as well as Sudan. We were however not able to gather much data and information about Sudan, with the result that the report is mainly concentrated on the three East African countries. The report confirms the paucity of data about the value of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies, not because that contribution is lacking, but mainly because the analytical framework of these economies does not permit its full appreciation. Even where efforts have been made to collect data, this has been limited to data on livestock and livestock products such as milk, hides and skins sold at national markets. Non-monetised contributions such as manure, draught power, control of bush and weeds, recycling of household waste are not captured or acknowledged. Nor is the contribution that pastoralism makes to the conservation and wildlife-based tourism. At the heart of this inadequate appreciation of the contribution of pastoralism to national economies is a pervasive misperception of pastoralism and pastoralists across the region. Despite the fact that pastoralism is one of the most researched livelihood systems in the world, and that it continues to hold an abiding enchantment especially to Western researchers even today, the perception of pastoralism within policy circles in the region remains clouded by stereotypes and myths. Many think of pastoralism, not as a livelihood system but as a stage in the transition of society from backwardness to modernization. Pastoralists, and in particular, nomadic pastoralists are thus seen as holding on to a livelihood system and practices that are not appropriate to current imperatives of social, cultural and economic change. These perceptions exist at the highest levels of government, and inform and define the type of interventions that governments have for years implemented in pastoral areas, with a view to transforming pastoralism and pastoralists and bringing them to the levels of modernity. These interventions have invariably targeted the livestock component of pastoralism, and sought to transform pastoralists “from being nomadic cattle herders to being settled modern livestock keepers”. It is not surprising that these interventions have invariably failed. They are founded on a poor understanding of the rationale of pastoral livelihood practices and land use. They are topdown and inspired by a desire to civilize pastoralists. Worse still, the interventions are premised on a perception of pastoralists as irrational and pastoralism itself as a problem, associating it with environmental degradation, conflict, and resistance to change. They are informed by the generalization that pastoralism “is constrained by poor animal husbandry, lack of modernization, accumulation of stock beyond carrying capacity and lack of market orientation…”. This study is based on a desk review of published material that we were able to unearth in libraries and on the Internet. We have already alluded to the fact that we were unable to obtain much on Sudan. However, even with respect to the other three countries, there are substantial information gaps in so far as the economics of pastoralism is concerned.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Odhiambo, M., 2006. Review of the literature on pastoral economics and marketing: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and the Sudan. Report prepared for the World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism, IUCN EARO RECONCILE, Kenya. cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/eastern_africa_reports.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Sundarban Eco-restoration Programme - Stakeholder Engagement Plan

Study from: 2015, published in 2015
Authors: Md. Salimul Alam Shahin, Deepak Sharma, Palash Sharma
Location(s): Bangladesh, India

Abstract:

The Sundarbans is serving a lots of ecological functions which include protecting cyclone and tidal bores, oxygen production, natural nursery for shrimp and crabs, waste recycling, carbon cycling, supply of food and building materials, trapping of sediments and land formation. Ignorance and lack of ownership, no one to take care of, lack of investment of authorized and lack of investment are some of the reasons behind degradation of such land. It is a matter of regret that, the land in Sundarbans is degrading day by day because of human interruption, natural calamity, population growth, agricultural and household extension, faulty policies of the government. Natural resources including flora and fauna are in stake due to human intervention. It is high time to think about it and to admit the proper value of Sundarbans reserve forest.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Shahin, S. A., Sharma, D., Sharma, P. 2015. Sundarban Eco-restoration Programme - Stakeholder Engagement Plan. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2015. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

The Economic Determinants of Land Degradation in Developing Countries

Study from: 1996-1997, published in 1997
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Low and middle income countries

Abstract:

The following paper investigates the economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. The main trends examined are rural households' decisions to degrade as opposed to conserve land resources, and the expansion of frontier agricultural activity that contributes to forest and marginal land conversion. These two phenomena appear often to be linked. In many developing areas, a poor rural household's decision whether to undertake long-term investment in improving existing agricultural land must be weighed against the decision to abandon this land and migrate to environmentally fragile areas. Economic factors play a critical role in determining these relationships. Poverty, imperfect capital markets and insecure land tenure may reinforce the tendency towards short-term time horizons in production decisions, and may bias land use decisions against long-term land management strategies. In periods of commodity booms and land speculation, wealthier households generally take advantage of their superior political and market power to ensure initial access to better quality resources, in order to capture a larger share of the resource rents. Poorer households are confined either to marginal environmental areas where resource rents are limited, or only have access to resources once they are degraded and rents dissipated. Overall trends in land degradation and deforestation are examined, followed by an overview of rural households' resource management decisions with respect to land management, frontier agricultural expansion, and migration from existing agricultural land to frontiers. Finally, the discussion focuses on the scope for policy improvements to reduce economic constraints to effective land management.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 1997. The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B. 352: 891-899. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691978/

Case Study

Case study details

The Economic Linkages between Rural Poverty and Land Degradation: Some Evidence from Africa

Study from: 1999-2000, published in 2000
Authors: E. B. Barbier
Location(s): Africa (Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya)

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the potential role of policy in influencing the poverty and land degradation problems facing Africa. This is done through exploring a few case studies, chosen from a broad spectrum of African countries — Sudan, Malawi, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. The first case study examines the comparative returns to the gum arabic agroforestry system cultivated by poor farmers in Northern Sudan, and the role of policies in influencing these returns. The second explores how erratic agricultural pricing policies in Malawi during the 1980s may have distorted the incentives of poor smallholders to adopt less-erosive crops in their farming systems. The third case study illustrates how inappropriate policies and investments can cause displacement of poorer rural groups from their traditional farming and grazing lands, by examining the loss of a major floodplain due to dam building in northern Nigeria. The final two case studies are concerned with policy ‘lessons learned’. The first looks at the impact of a macro-economic adjustment policy — in this case trade liberalization — on farmers’ decisions to expand cultivated area rather than intensify crop production in western Ghana. The final case study examines the role of policy in land management success story in Africa, the Machakos District, Kenya, and explores the critical question of whether this success can be replicated elsewhere in Africa. These case studies serve two important functions. First, they demonstrate how policy analysis can be effective in highlighting key dimensions of the poverty–environment linkages underlying land degradation. Second, they illustrate how both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ policies can affect the economic incentives determining poor rural household’s decisions to conserve or degrade their land.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Barbier, E.B., 2000. The economic linkages between rural poverty and land degradation: Some evidence from Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 82: 355-370. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880900002371

Case Study

Case study details

The Lake Victoria Ecosystem: A deeper look into its true worth

Study from: 2014, published in 2014
Authors: Benson Rwegoshora Bashange; Chanoine Marie; Franz Vockinger; Janek Toepper; Leah-Rehema Murerwa; Rose Anarfiwaah Oppong; Yacoubou Kadade
Location(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

Abstract:

Full reference of the paper/report:

Rwegoshora Bashange, B., Chanoine, M., Vockinger, F., Toepper, J., Murerwa, L.R., Anarfiwaah Oppong, R., Kadade, Y. 2014. The Lake Victoria Ecosystem: A deeper look into its true worth. Developed in the ELD MOOC 2014. Available from: mooc.eld-initiative.org.

Case Study

Case study details

The On-Site Cost of Soil Erosion in Mali

Study from: 1989, based on data from 1981-1988, published in 1989
Authors: J. Bishop and J. Allen
Location(s): Mali (using data from Burkina Faso)

Abstract:

Land degradation in the Sahelian countries of West Farida is widely perceived as a critical threat to economic development. Some studies have quantified the extent of physical decline locally bit few have attempts to determine its economic impact. There is some evidence, however that current rates of depletion of Sahelian land resources may be excessive from an economic perspective, due to insecurity of land tenure and poorly developed capital markets.

This paper attempts to evaluate the gross on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali, a nation in which subsistence farming accounts for about one-fifth of national income. Mean local rates of soil erosion by rainfall are estimated and mapped using data derived from a land resources atlas of Mali and the Universal Soil Loss Equation. This analysis concerns only cultivated land within a north-south swath of Mali, comprising roughly one third of the country's most productive agricultural areas Average soil loss Is estimated at 6.5 tons/ha/yr, with higher losses occurring in the South (maximum 31 tons/he/yr).

Using a range of assumptions about the impact of erosion on crop yields, estimated rates of soil erosion on farm land imply average annual yield penalties in the study area between 24 and 104. These losses are expressed in terms of foregone net farm income, using farm budgets recorded in Burkina Faso.

Estimates of foregone farm income are compared to the costs of a relatively inexpensive soil conservation technology (rock contour bunds). Areas are identified where such investment may be justified as shown by a higher level of estimated farm income foregone.

The report suggests that economic returns to agriculture will be overstated by conventional benefit-cost analysis. On an annual basis, and ignoring possible price effects, current net farm income foregone nationwide due to soil erosion is estimated at US$4.6 to $18.7 million. However, soil erosion in one season affects crop yields in each subsequent year, until the land is fallowed. Under conservative assumptions of a ten-year time horizon and a 10% discount rate, the present value of current and future net farm income foregone nationwide, due to one year of average soil loss, is estimated at US$31 to $123 million (4% to 16% of agricultural GDP).

For most of Mali's agricultural land, there probably exist some cost-effective measures to reduce erosion losses. We must distinguish, however, between cost-effectiveness from a public and from a private perspective. If farmers do not already use basic soil conserving measures, it may be because they discount potential increased future yields at such a high rate that almost any present investment is uneconomic. This might be more effectively remedied by policy changes, such as formal recognition of indigenous land tenure system which would increase access to formal credit, or relaxation of constraints on informal credit.

Because of the uncertainty of the underlying calculations, any policy and program prescriptions based on this research must be tentative. The study is perhaps best considered as an illustration of a method of evaluation land degradation rather than as a definitive analysis with which to justify intervention. Hence the emphasis throughout is on methods of approximation and comparison.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Bishop, J., & Allen, J., 1989. The on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali. Environment Working Paper No. 21. The World Bank, Washington D.C. www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1989/11/01/000009265_3960928152005/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

The Value of Forest Ecosystems (CBD Technical Series No. 4)

Study from: 2001, published in 2001
Authors: Secretariat of the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD)
Location(s): Global

Abstract:

Forests worldwide are known to be critically important habitats in terms of the biological diversity they contain and in terms of the ecological functions they serve. Taking species counts as an illustration of biological diversity, the number of described organisms totals some 1.75 million, and it is conjectured that this may be just 13% of the true total, i.e. actual species number perhaps 13.6 million (Hawksworth and Kalin-Arroyo, 1995; Stork, 1999). What fraction of this uncertain total resides in the world's forests is unknown. Wilson (1992) has suggested that perhaps half of all known species reside in tropical forests alone, and WCMC (1992) conjectures that the majority of yet-to-be-discovered species are in tropical areas. Whatever the precise number, forests, and tropical forests in particular, are major locations for biological diversity. The values of forests therefore embody the values of the biological diversity they contain since it seems unlikely that the vast majority of the biological resources in question could occupy non-forest habitats. The ecological services of forests are similarly many. Forests regulate local and global climate, ameliorate weather events, regulate the hydrological cycle, protect watersheds and their vegetation, water flows and soils, and provide a vast store of genetic information much of which has yet to be uncovered. Scientists debate the linkages between biological diversity and ecological services. Those who believe in a strong link argue that any ecosystem, forests included, cannot cope with stresses and shocks if the diversity of the system has been reduced. Others argue that a majority of species are 'redundant' in the sense that their removal would not impair ecosystem functioning. On balance, it seems very likely that uniform systems are more vulnerable: diversity matters for ecosystem performance (Mooney et al. 1995; Holling et al, 1995). The need to understand the values that reside in forests arises from the estimated rates of loss of forest area and, hence, in biological diversity. While still debated, species-area relationships, which predict the number of species lost based on the area lost, suggest that loss rates run into the thousands per year1. Tropical forest extinction rates have been most studied. Assuming that tropical forests account for about one-half of all species diversity, loss rates of tropical forest of just under 1 per cent area per annum would result in 1-10% of the world's species being lost over the next 25 years (Barbault and Sastapradja, 1995). The species-area relationship also entails that current rates of conversion of 'natural' areas will not result in very rapid rates of species loss compared to the loss rates that will ensue when yet further land conversion occurs. In other words, loss rates build up rapidly as the area in question is reduced: 'fewer extinctions now, many more later' (Pimm and Raven, 2000). This situation is exacerbated by the concentration of much diversity into 'hotspots' where rates of land conversion tend to be highest. Even if all remaining hotspot land was immediately protected, it has been suggested that 18% of their species will disappear. If only currently protected hotspot areas remain in a decade's time, 40% of hotspot species will disappear (Pimm and Raven, 2000).

Full reference of the paper/report:

CBD., 2001. The value of forest ecosystems. CBD Technical Series No. 4. Secretariat of the Convention on Biodiversity. Montreal, Canada. www.cbd.int/doc/publications/cbd-ts-04.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital

Study from: 1997, published in 1997
Authors: R. Costanza, R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farberk, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R.G. Raskin, P.Sutton and M. van den Belt
Location(s): Global

Abstract:

The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth’s life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$16–54 trillion (1012) per year, with an average of US$33trillion per year. Because of the nature of the uncertainties, this must be considered a minimum estimate. Global gross national product total is around US$18 trillion per year

Full reference of the paper/report:

Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farberk, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O’Neill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P., & van den Belt, M., 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature. 387: 253-260. www.esd.ornl.gov/benefits_conference/nature_paper.pdf

Case Study

Case study details

Water-Spreading Weirs for the Development of Degraded Dry River Valleys: Experience from the Sahel

Study from: 2011, published in 2012
Authors: D. Nill, K. Ackermann, E. van den Akker, A. Schöning, M. Wegner, C. van der Schaaf and J. Pieterse
Location(s): Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad (degraded dry valleys)

Abstract:

Over the last 12 years water-spreading weirs have been introduced and improved as a new rehabilitation technique for degraded dry valleys in Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad. They complement the previously available, proven rehabilitation measures for drainage basins. In contrast to other techniques, water-spreading weirs are especially well suited for the large-scale rehabilitation of wide and shallow dry valleys that have been seriously degraded and in which severe gully erosion prevents the regular flooding that would normally be typical there.

Substantial degradation of drainage basins in the Sahel due to population growth and intense land-use pressure has been observed since the 1960s. Climate change has further amplified this trend. Sparse vegetation cover and structurally damaged soils reduce rainfall infiltration into the soil, resulting in more runoff and soil erosion on plateaus and slopes. Runoff is concentrated in the valleys, in which heavy floodwaters wash away fertile soils and lead to deep erosion of the riverbed.

The study analyses lessons learned and impacts of water-spreading weirs. Findings are based on available documentation of GIZ projects in Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad. These were combined in a cross-national study. Experience to date from Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad shows that water-spreading weirs bring about substantial ecological, economic and social improvements.

Full reference of the paper/report:

Nill, D., Ackermann, K., van den Akker, E., Schöning, A., Wegner, M., van der Schaaf, C., & Pieterse, J., 2012. Water-spreading weirs for the development of degraded dry river valleys: Experience from the Sahel. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Germany. www.giz.de/fachexpertise/downloads/giz2013-en-water-spreading-weirs.pdf


Print
Change Textsize
x

To change the size of the shown text on this website, please use the embedded functionality of your browser. The keyboard shortcuts are as follows:

Windows PC

Apple Macintosh

(or press ESC or click the overlay)