Area: 3.287 million km²

Geography: India is part of the continent of Asia. Most of India forms a peninsula, jutting out into the ocean. The southeast is bordered by the Bay of Bengal, and the southwest is bordered by the Arabian Sea. The Himalayas rise in the north of the country. India’s terrain varies widely, from the Thar Desert in the west to jungles in the northeast. A fertile area called the Ganges Plain covers much of northern India.

Land Degradation: In the last two decades, l­­and degradation has intensified across India, particularly in semi-arid areas. Climate change, depleting water tables, increased pressure for enhanced yields and return on investments have all aggravated land degradation. Recent trends show that land degradation has increased from 81.48 million hectares (mha) in years 2003-05 to 82.64 mha in 2011-13. (ELD et al, 2021)

Sustainable Land Management: Since India is a signatory of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the country has set a target of restoring 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030. (ELD et al, 2021)


  • Case Study (2020)

    Topic: Economic valuations of terrestrial ecosystem services
    Title: Economic Valuation of Reducing Land Degradation through Watershed Development in East Madhya Pradesh under Risks of Climate Extremes
    Content: This study conducted jointly with the Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) seeks to assess the economic and environmental benefits of reducing land degradation through sustainable land management practices such as watershed development in eastern Madhya Pradesh and in the context of climate change.
    Publication: April 2020


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