Area: 513,120 kmĀ²

Geography: While from mid-May to September, the climate in Thailand is tropical, rainy and warm, from November to mid-March it is dry and cool. Thailand is largely plan in the center, with the Khorat Plateau in the east and mountains elsewhere. Agriculture is the most common land use, with 41.2 percent of lands used to produce sugar cane, cassava, rice, oil palm fruit, rubber, maize and tropical fruit. It accounts for 8.2 percent of the GDP, a third of the labor force works in agriculture. (CIA, 2022)

Land Degradation: The conversion of forests to other land uses, the use of unsuitable areas for agriculture are contributing to land degradation, by decline in soil productivity which in turn affect the agricultural productivity and human well-being. Land productivity has declined in 21 percent of Thailand's land area with 0.03% loss of Soil Organic Carbon during 2000 to 2010. (UNCCD, 2017)

Sustainable Land Management: In 2017, Thailand has established its national voluntary Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) targets with the ambition to achieve LDN by 2030 through reforestation and the rehabilitation of degraded lands. (UNCCD, 2017)


  • Case Study (2023)

    Title:  Economic Analysis of Nature-based Solutions for Flood and Drought Resilience of the 9C-9T Sub-basin Report
    Content:The 9C-9T sub-basin of the Mekong River is highly degraded. Over the past two decades the basin has seen significant socio-economic change with increased urbanisation, agricultural expansion and intensification, and unsustainable use of forest resources. Cambodia and Thailand established a partnership in order to improve joint planning and implementation in the sub-basin, aimed at enhancing resilience to floods and droughts. Nature-based Solutions in the basin have been developed as part of the planning process for addressing the challenges posed by floods and droughts. An assessment of the economic performance of NbS and hybrid measures has been commissioned to demonstrate the economic case for investment in NbS approaches.

    AuthorsGIZMRCICEMELD InitiativeCOT & PPIC


ELD Secretariat