Area: 637,657 km²

Geography: Somalia is located in the Horn of Africa. The landscape consists mainly of flat terrain that merges into an undulating plateau and rises to hills in the north. It is predominantly desert and scrubland and the climate varies between desert and semi-humid. Monsoon occurs from December to February in the Northeast and from May to October in the Southwest. Irregular rainfall and humid periods are typical for the climate between the monsoons. (CIA, 2019)

Land Degradation: Livestock and agriculture form the basis of the Somali population’s livelihoods, which makes the country highly vulnerable to the impacts of environmental problems. Beside desertification and deforestation, also land degradation is a massive problem. From 1980 to 2009 the most prevalent types of land degradation were loss of vegetation, topsoil loss and the decline of soil moisture. Causes of land degradation in Somalia are overgrazing, tree cutting, poor agronomic practices and the limited use of soil and water conservation practices in crop-production areas.(CIA, 2019) (FAO)


  • Case study (2021)

    Title: An assessment of grazing management practices in Puntland, Somalia: Community-led grazing land management model for Dharoor valley
    Content: This report uses the ELD methodology to assess the effects of land degradation on livelihoods of pastoral communities in the Puntland region of Somalia. The study aims to strengthen capacities of research and government institutions through training and mentoring on environmental valuation methods, so local decision makers can draw upon recommendations based on sound economic evidence.

    • Report: EN
  • Case study (2021)

    Title: An assessment of the economic impact of land degradation in Somaliland
    Content: This report conducts an assessment of the economic impact of land degradation in the case study areas of Baligubadle and Bookh rangelands.

    • Report: EN
    • Policy brief: EN
  • Capacity Building (2017-2020)

    Within the Regreening Africa project, jointly implemented with the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), the ELD Initiative is conducting trainings on the total economic valuation of terrestrial ecosystems and their services. Trainings are complemented by practical exercises as part of research within the country.


ELD Secretariat